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EDITOR'S DESKWELDFAB TECH TIMES www.weldfabtechtimes.comPublisher & Editor Eliza Bhalerao eliza@weldfabtechtimes.com Group Managing Editor Amol Bhalerao…
EDITOR'S DESKWELDFAB TECH TIMES www.weldfabtechtimes.comPublisher & Editor Eliza Bhalerao eliza@weldfabtechtimes.com Group Managing Editor Amol Bhalerao amol@weldfabtechtimes.com Assistant Editor Marilyn Dias editorial@weldfabtechtimes.com Business Development Manager Monica Waghmare monica@weldfabtechtimes.com Designer Deepa Warang design@weldfabtechtimes.com Advertisement marketing@weldfabtechtimes.com Mob : +91-9975580309 Subscription subscription@weldfabtechtimes.com Mob : +91-973090425914th September, 2019 in Mumbai Dear Readers, Hope you all took the pleasure in reading the preceding April – May, 2019 Issue. We now introduce you the June-July edition with attention-grabbing articles and other editorial content. With the forthcoming Aug – Sept 2019 Issue, WeldFab Tech Times feels great to announce the victorious completion of 2 Years. Thanks to all our esteemed advertisers, subscribers, authors and readers.EAA Publication Registered Office : Gauri Estate, Ekdant, B-3/503, Near Gauri Hall, Manjarli, Badlapur ( West ) - 421503. Dist. - Thane. State - Maharashtra, India. Mob: + 91 9975580309 / 9172546460 Email: eliza@weldfabtechtimes.com / eliza.weldfabtechtimes@gmail.com Website: www.weldfabtechtimes.com All rights reserved. While all efforts are made to ensure that the information published is correct, WeldFab Tech Times holds no responsibility for any unlikely errors that might occur. Printed, Owned & Published by Eliza Amol Bhalerao on behalf of EAA Publication, Printed at Printpoint Shop no - 5, Ground Floor, Sangeeta Skill Mill, Press bazaar, Near Shivaji Chowk, Opp. Bharat Green Lawn, Ulhasnagar - 421003 and Published from B-3/503, Ekdanth, Gauri Estate, Near Gauri Hall, Manjarli, Badlapur (W), Dist.: Thane – Ulhasnagar - 421503, Maharashtra, India. Editor: Amol A. Bhalerao The information on products on offer is being provided for the reference of readers. However, readers are cautioned to make inquires and take their decision on purchase or investment after consulting experts on the subject. WeldFab Tech Times holds no responsibility for any decision taken by readers on the basis of information provided herein.4WELDFAB TECH TIMES | JUNE - JULY 2019The 2nd Anniversary Aug – Sept Issue, will be unveiled during WeldFab Tech Awards 2019 @ Hotel Sahara Star, Mumbai. It will be distributed to all the attendees at the event and the subscribers. This Issue would prove to be a great platform for all our advertisers to showcase its brand and get connected to the targeted market. So grasp the Advertisement Space ASAP!!!Scan To NominateEliza Bhalerao Publisher & Editorwww.weldfabtechtimes.comLEADING MANUFACTURER OF BEVELING MACHINES AND WELDING & CUTTING TRACTORSIndustry Segments :- PEB, Shipyards, Railway, Pressure vessels, Tanks, Heavy machinery, Wind power, Tippers and Trailers, Industrial automotive.Beam, Box welding and stitching applicationsCircumferential weldingVertical and horizontal welding with oscillationPromotech PolandPromotech Sp. z o.o. Factory address:Elewatorska 23/1,15-620 Białystok, Poland www.promotech.euPromotech IndiaABM-50 by PROMOTECH Auto Feed double-sided industrial bevellerPromotech Fabrication Machines Pvt ltd Warehouse and sales office :A-89, DSIIDC Complex Kirti Nagar New Delhi – 110015 +91 80105 97001 asehrawat@promotech.euPlease visit our stand3082, Hall 2www.cweonline.inCONTENTS 6WOMEN IN WELDING “I just get started doing what I know and figure out the surest as I go along.” Barbie Parsons, Welder from Barbie The Welder, Metal sculpture design & creation48 ARTICLEINDEPTH14 An experimental approach on friction stir welding process parameters & tool design for dissimilar joints30Collaborative robots offer manufacturers a safer cutting edgeINTERVIEW34WELDFAB TECH TIMES | JUNE - JULY 2019“ARO 3G technology is more competitive than customers may perceive...”Scan For Digital Magazinewww.weldfabtechtimes.comINNOVATIONS44Nanotechnology enables engineers to weld previously un-weldable aluminum alloyLAUNCHESWELDER’S PASSION4038“We all have own ways to weld.”Pandrol Connect Welding AppBULLETINS10PRODUCTS UPDATE28www.weldfabtechtimes.comJUNE - JULY 2019 | WELDFAB TECH TIMES7BULLETINSWelding: Advanced Ultrasonic Servo PressesGermany’s MScleanroom environments thatand speed when changingUltrasonicare standard in the medicalparts. The homogeneousTechnologies Groupand pharmaceutical industries,plasticizing resulting from the(U.S. office in Webberville,yet also can be used for otheruse of this technology is saidMich.) has launched a newindustries.to ensure enhanced weldingfamily of ultrasonic servo presses that are said toThe absolute path Source: www.ptonline.comresults, irrespective of howmeasurement is said to takecomplex the challenges of theplace throughout the possibleparts to be welded turn outadvantages. Features of the MSconnectivity, an integratedwork stroke of over 400 mm,to be. The tool-free exchangesoniTOP family—models Opus,tensile test and the simple andintuitively adjustable andof nests and resonant unitsNexus, Fusion and Genesis,quick changing of the resonantautomatically positioned. Thisfunctions quickly and in arange from an integratedunit. The company’s pressesis also the case for the triggerstraightforward way. Theservo drive to intuitivereportedly also ensure theand work positions,which cancorresponding weldingoperation up to MS paralliCer-greatest possible yield withbe saved. The high speed ofrecipes for new products canTechnology—a patentedreduced scrap rate becausemovement of 240 mm, enablesbe selected automaticallyinnovation that works withoutof their unique functions.greatly improved productivity.or manually. Automaticloss of parallelism between theThe integrated servo drive,The integrated servo driveindexing after the quick changesonotrode and workpiece.compared to pneumaticdelivers outstanding efficiencyreportedly ensures consistent,units, forgoes compressed airdue to reduction of cycle timeshigh-quality welds from theentirely and is ideally suited forand allows maximum flexibilityfirst part and avoids rejects.offer users a wide range ofOther advanced features include far-reachingPermit for Welding Academy MAGIC Camp Exposes Teen supported by Union Plan Girls to Heavy Equipment, Board WeldingAUnion Planning and Zoningtraining ground for aspiringRGirl in Construction (MAGIC),certification through theCommission despite thewelders.conducted her ninth annualprogram.permit request for aRob Knoll, representingnew welding schoolAmerican Welding Academy,was supported by thesaid the facility would be aobjection of one neighbor.The facility would be builtday” on Monday. An OSHAnational executivesafety director also helps thedirector of Mentoring agirls earn their 10-hour OSHAconstruction camp for girlsAs the week goes on,on land formerly owned byages 14 to 18 last week.campers are exposed tovoted unanimously to backthe Union DevelopmentAccording to an article in theskills in heavy equipment,a request from the AmericanCorporation (UDC) at theDaily Tribune, the camp givescarpentry, electrical wiring,Welding Academy to operateintersection of Progresshigh school girls a previewand welding. After learninga training facility at 3 ProgressParkway and Prairie Dellof what it might be like toabout each constructionParkway. The board’sRoad.The plan board Mondayhave a career as a carpenter,medium, the girls put theirrecommendation is nowwelder, electrician, or heavyskills to the test creating thingspassed along to the board ofequipment operator.like a candle holder, and aaldermen, which will haveAccording to the article,the final say on awarding the permit.10enee Connor, theWELDFAB TECH TIMES | JUNE - JULY 2019the girls always start the Source: www.emissourian.comweeklong camp with “OSHAMason jar lamp. Source: www.constructionequipment.comwww.weldfabtechtimes.comBULLETINSAdvanced laser welding solutions for electric vehicle battery enclosuresKPC welders to replace Chinese, Nigerians after graduationBfunction properly and retainTtheir life span. This process,training that will ease theknown as fluid cooling,skills shortage that forced theskills shortage in the sectorrequires airtight seals to keepcountry to ship in Chinese,that recently pushed KenyaNigerian and Lebaneseto ship in about 50 foreignwelders.welders while building newatteries used in electric vehicles must be actively cooled topipeline weldersan 820-kilometre crude oilhave completed anpipeline between LokicharLaser welding ismethods can be used to weldtraditionally only used withThe Kenya Pipelineplastic battery packagingtranslucent or optically clearCompany (KPC) welderscomponents, those that doplastics. Now, however,completed the six-monthsnot require external agentsCovestro and Leistertraining that saw themare less complex and moreTechnologies have extendedsit examinations in Spaincost-efficient.use of this joining techniqueOf these techniques,retardant Bayblend® PC+ABSto laser welding as it allowsblend from Covestro, whilefor larger parts, does notachieving the same levelrequire a pre-treatmentof weld strength. Flame-and offers high-precision,retardant plastics arerepeatability and control.preferred and often requiredCovestro LLC worked withfor battery enclosures as theyLeister Technologies LLC tocan help prevent or delay thedevelop process and materialspread of fires.The upgrade comes amidSh43 billion Nairobi-Mombasa pipeline.Source: www.businessdailyafrica.comJean-Pascal Tricoire appointed to the Board of the United Nations Global Compactfluid-cooled battery modulesFR3010 PC+ABS blend,used in electric vehicles suchwe developed effectiveas new passenger vehicles,and reliable laser weldingUelectric buses, trucks andsolutions for production-Global Compact France andother utility vehicles.ready battery modules thatChairman & CEO of Schneider"This joining techniqueand Lamu for export.to include opaque flame-manufacturers often turnsolutions for laser welding"Using Bayblend®N SecretaryGeneral Antonio Guterres has appointed Jean-Pascal Tricoire, President ofcan withstand battery abuseElectric, to the United Nationsprovides the accuracytesting, including UN38.3,"Global Compact Board. Theneeded for welding in tightsaid Terry Davis, principalUN Global Compact Boardlocations and around otherengineer, Covestro LLC.plays an important role instrategic and policy advice forcomponents in fluid-cooled"With this material, batteryshaping the strategy andthe initiative. Board memberssystems," said Fernandomanufacturers can createpolicy of the initiative, whichare considered championsSantillana, senior projectreliable and leak-free batteryacts as the United Nationswho are willing and able tomanager – Midwest, Eastenclosures."flagship for responsibleadvance the mission of theCoast, Caribbean and Latinbusiness action. DesignedUN Global Compact. They actAmerica, Leister Technologiesas a multi-stakeholder body,in a personal, honorary andthe Board provides ongoingunpaid capacity.LLC.12ahead of Kenya buildinginternational accreditedfluids contained and avoid spills. While several joiningen Kenyan oilWELDFAB TECH TIMES | JUNE - JULY 2019Source: www.covestro.uswww.weldfabtechtimes.comARTICLEAn experimental approach on friction stir welding process parameters and tool design for dissimilar joints Abstract: In the present investigation, dissimilar materials electrolytic tough pitch pure copper to aluminum (6061-T651) welded with the favourable process parameters by friction stir welding (FSW).Tool pin profile and shoulder to pin diameter ratio parameters considered as tool design parameters. Rotational speed, welding speed, tool pin offset and tool tilt angle considered as process parameters. Four set of experiments were carried out to analyse tool design and process parameters of dissimilar copper (Cu) – aluminum (Al) FSW. Visual observation, macro structure, microstructural characterization and analysis of mechanical properties evolution used to identify favourable parameters after each set of experiment. The results revealed that cylindrical tool pin profile gives sound dissimilar Cu-Al friction stir welding. FSW process parameters of rotational speed 1500 rpm, welding speed 40 mm/min, tool pin offset 2 mm, tool tilt angle 2Ëš with plunge load range 600-850 kgf enhance mechanical strength of 133 MPa and macro hardness of 181 VH (in the nugget zone) without any defect. Keywords: Dissimilar materials, Friction Stir Welding, Process parameters, Weld propertiesKush P. Mehta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Raisan, Gandhinagar-382007, Gujarat, India.1. Introduction14differences in melting temperature,soften (i.e. plastically deformed) the areachemical compositions and physicalunder tool shoulder and stirring of toolproperties. Despite of this, dissimilarpin helps to move the soften materialCu-Al joining is applied widely infrom front to rear [1].Joining of Cu andmany industries in order to takeAl materials together is also difficulttechnical and economical advantages.by FSW technology [2] but feasible [3].Different industries such as electrical,Microstructure of dissimilar Cu-Al FSWnuclear, aerospace, chemical, solar andshows that it has vortex like and swirlelectronic use dissimilar Cu-Al jointsflow under the area of tool [4]. Mixingfor different applications. Friction stirof Cu and Al together is difficult duewelding (FSW) successively applied toto differences in plastic deformationjoin Cu-Al together since last few years.temperatures and vortex like flowFSW is a solid state welding invented inbetween Cu-Al [2-4]. Generation of hard1991 by W. M. Thomas at the weldingand brittle intermetallic compoundsinstitute (TWI) to join Al alloys [1].(IMCs) like Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu cannotAs the name implies, friction as wellbe avoided for dissimilar Cu-Al FSW.as stirring is responsible for makingMore the IMCs generate more defects,weld in solid state by non-consumablewhich leads it to produce low strengthDissimilar welding of copper (Cu) androtating tool, which has speciallyjoint [2 - 15].Therefore, it is necessary toaluminum (Al) is a challenge to performdesigned shoulder and pin. Frictionreduce volume of IMCs for getting defectas both of these materials are havingbetween tool shoulder and work piecefree-sound dissimilar Cu-Al FSW joint.WELDFAB TECH TIMES | JUNE - JULY 2019www.weldfabtechtimes.comARTICLEA thin-continuous and uniform layer ofEsmaeilli et al [10]observed that changematerials of 6.3 mm thickness wereintermetallic compounds improve thein rotational speed affects IMCs andused to butt type join by friction stirstrength of dissimilar Cu-Al FSW joint [6,mechanical behaviour of dissimilartechnology. Chemical compositions of8, 12, 16 - 17].Uniformity and continuousbrass-AA1050 joint. Xue et al [16] studiedbase materials are shown in Table:1.layer of IMCs of dissimilar Cu-Al jointdifferent parameters like fixed location,Tool steel of M2 grade (heat treateddepends on the process parameterspin offset, rotational speed, weldingand 62HRC hardened) material wasoptimization in friction stir welding [9,speed on mechanical properties andused in present investigation. Chemical16]. Variation in IMCs layer also variesmicrostructure of dissimilar Cu-Alcomposition of tool is shown in Table:metallurgical and mechanical propertiesFSW. Larger tool pin offset toward Al2.Experiments were carried out byof Cu-Al FSW joint. Researchersside helps to allow more stirring actionkeeping Cu at advancing side and Al atobserved that tool design, tool pinat Al side and only small Cu particlesretreating side as shown in Fig: 1. Loadoffset, rotational speed, welding speed,scratched from Cu work piece, whichlocation of Cu and Al in fixture (like Cumakes defect free joint by easy mixingrequires to be fixed at advancing sideof Cu into Al matrix [8, 16]. It is reportedand Al requires to be fixed at retreatingthat harder material copper require toside for dissimilar Cu-Al FSW) are majorfixed at advancing side in the fixtureprocess parameters which affects thewhile performing dissimilar Cu-Al FSWIMCs and quality of dissimilar Cu-Also that, it can be easily transportedFSW joint. Akinlabi et al [18] found thatand mixed with aluminum matrix andvarying shoulder diameter affects heatreduces defects in nugget [16, 19].Fig: 1 Position of workpiece materials in fixture.input conditions which also varies IMCsIt is well documented that, there is aand mechanical properties of Cu-Al FSW.need to optimize process parameters toOptimum shoulder diameter 18mmachieve highest strength with uniformcells were located below the fixtureproduces highest strength (208 MPa)IMC layer. Present investigation iswhich reports the variation of axialwith appropriate material flow in stircarried out to detailed analysis forplunge load throughout the dissimilarzone out of three diameters 15 mm, 18different process parameters like tool pinFSW.mm and 25 mm for dissimilar AA5754profile, tool pin offset, rotational speed,to C11000 FSW joint [18]. Abdollah [5]welding speed, tool tilt angle and axialinto four set of experiments. Toolobserved that increase in rotationalplunge load for dissimilar (electrolyticdesign, tool pin offset, welding speed,speed or decrease in welding speedtough pitch copper to AA6061-T651)rotational speed, tilt angle and axialincrease the amount of IMCs and reducematerials. This study also includesplunge load are studied and optimizedits strength, whereas extremely lowoptimization of all these parametersduring experimental work. First set ofrotational speed results in imperfectthrough experimental approach.experiment was carried out to study tooljoints. Galvao et al [9] observed that ratioExperimental work is dividedpin offset and tool design with taper pinof rotational speed to welding speed2. Experimental Procedureprofile. First set of experiment studiesdirectly affects the heat input, IMCs andAluminum 6061-T651 and electrolyticthree experiments by varying tool pinmechanical strength of dissimilar Cu-Altough pitch copper (~99.9 purity)offset 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm whereinTable: 1. Chemical composition of base materials MaterialsSiFeCuMnMgCrZnTiImpuritiesAlAl 6061-T6510.560.300. copper-->99.9-----Balance-97.15% Conductivitymaterial. Optimum ratio of rotational speed to welding speed produce efficient defect free joint with higher strength.www.weldfabtechtimes.comTable: 2. Chemical composition of tool ElementCCrVWMoCoCbPercentage (%)0.804. JUNE - JULY 2019 | WELDFAB TECH TIMES15ARTICLETable: 3 Process parameters for first set of experiment. Set of experimentsRotational speed (rpm)1Welding Speed (mm/min)1500second set of experiment. In additionTilt angle (°)30Tool Pin Offset (mm)to this, rotational speed kept 1500 rpm1second set of experiment based on the results of first set of experiment. Visual20and tool pin offset was taken 2 mm forchecking and macrostructure test was3taken after welding same as first set ofTable: 5 Third set of experiment. Set of experimentsRotational Speeds (rpm)Welding speed (mm/min)Tilt angle (°)Tool Pin Offset (mm)4001Welding speed (mm/min)Tilt pin offset (mm)Tilt angle (˚)1500 130011050 Table: 6 Fourth set of experiment. Set of experimentsFig: 2 Tool design 1.Rotational speed (rpm)0keeping other parameters constant1like tool dimension, rotational speed, welding speed and tilt angle as tool: 1113004002(as shown in Fig: 2), 1500 rpm, 30 mm/3min and 0˚ respectively as shown in4Table: 3.These three test coupons were checked visually and then subjectedis having cylindrical tool pin profile withexperiment for conforming quality ofto macrostructure testing. For macroincreased dimensions as shown in Fig:welding. Based on it, the best result wasstructure testing polishing of joint was3. Tilt angle was also increased to 2˚ fortaken as constant parameters for next set of experimen
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