Water Journal September - October 2000

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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000selection to systems design, installatio and commissio service and hire,Flygt can manageyour e tire project needs. Our branch and distributor…
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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000selection to systems design, installatio and commissio service and hire,Flygt can manageyour e tire project needs. Our branch and distributor network supports all facets of your system, including electrica:l equipment design, manufacture and installation as well as civil works andFlygtPhone Adelaide Brisbane Kalgoorlie Mackay Melbourne Mount lsa Perth Sydney Townsville131914ITT Industries Engineered for lifewww.flygt.comVolume 27 No 5 September/October 2000 Journal of the Australian Water AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Andmon, P Draayers, W J D ulfer, G Finlayson, G A Ho lder, M Kirk, 13 Labza, M Muntisov, N Orr, P N adebamn, J D Parker, M Pascoe, A J Priestley, J l<.issman, F R o ddick, EA Swinton I ·,CONTENTS From the Federal President ...... .. .. .... .. ............... .. .. ..................... ... ................ 2 From the Executive Director ... ..... ..... ...... ........ ......... .............. ........... .... .. ..... 4 MYPOINTOFVIEWWater is a refereed jo urnal. This symbo lindica tes that a paper h as bee n refereed .SubmissionsDon't Complain with your Mouth Full ..... .. ... .. ......... ... .... ......... .. ...... ..... :... .... . 8 S Mi!JsSubmissions should be made to E A (Bob) Swinton , Feawres Edito r (see below for d erails).General Editor Peter Stirling PO l3ox 84, Hampton Vic 3 I 88 T el (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 89 I IFeatures Editor EA (Bob) Swinton 4 Pleasant View C res, Wheelers H ill Vic 3 150 T e l/ Fax (03) 9560 4752 Email: bswinron@bigpond.net.auAWA Head Office PO l3o x 388, Artarmon , NSW 1570 T el +6 1 2 94 13 1288 Emai l: in fo@awa.asn.auWater Advertising & Production Hallmark Editio ns PO J3ox 84 , Hampton, Vic 3 188 Level I , 99 Bay Street, Brighton, Vic 3 ·186 T el (03) 9 530 8900 Fax (03) 9 530 89 1 1 Email: hallmark@ hallcdit.com.auCSIROURBANWATERPROGRAMThe Urban Water Program .............. ........... ....... .. ....... .. ......... ..... .......... ..... ... ... 10 A Speers Life Cycle Costing of Urban Water Systems ....... .... ........... .. ..... ........ .. .. .... 12 S N T ucker, V G Mitc hell and L S Burn UVQ: A Water and Contaminant Balance Model ................ .. ..... ................ 14 V G Mitc he ll and S R. Gray TAWS for Assessing Alternative Water Systems .............. .......... ..... ........ 16 S Mah eepala The Scenario Manager ....... ........ .. ....... ..... ... ...... .... .... .. ... .. ... .... ........... .... ....... ... 17 M R eed, J Coleman and C Zoppou Peak Levelling in Urban Water Reticulation Systems ............................ 19 R. J Shipton Peak Load Management at WWTPS ...... .... .. ......... .. ........... .. ... ........ .. ........... .. 20 N Booker Economic Scale of Greywater Reuse Systems ............ .. ... .......... .. ... .......... 22 N Booker Septic Tank Replacement ..................... ... ...... ....... .. .... ........... ............... ........ .. 24 S Gray, N Booke rAdvertising coordination: Fiona Second Graphic design: Mitzi MannWASTEWATERWater (ISSN 0310 - 0367)Water Recycling ........... ..... ........... .... ...... ... ...... .... ........ ... .. .. .... ..... ... ..... ..... .... 26is published in January, M arch , May, July, Se pte mbe r and N o v ember.J AndersonAustralian Water Association Inc ArU3N 054 253 066Federal President A llen GaleExecutive Director C hris DavisAWA :s-=..:. ~•AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATIONAustralian Water Asso ciation (AW A) assurnes no respo nsibility for opinions or statements of fa cts ex pressed by con tri b utors o r advertisers . Editorials do no t necessaril y represent offic ial AW A po licy. Advertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed b efore publicatio n to en sure relevance to the water en viro nment and objectives of A WA . All m aterial in Water is copyright and should not be re produced wholly o r in part with out the written perm issio n of the General Edito r.The Willunga Basin Pipeline - Stage 1 ... ... ... ........... ........................ .. ....... 27J G ransbu ry Wastewater Reuse: A Practical Viewpoint . .... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. . .. . ... .. . .. . .. . . .. ... .. . 32 A Murphy and J M urtagh From Problem to Profit: The North Adelaide Plains Irrigation Project ....... 37 J Kell y and D Steve ns Australia's Largest Water Re-Use Projects .................... .. ... .... .... ... .. ....... 42 B Ellis Guidelines for Wastewater Irrigation ..... ...... .... .. .. .. .. .... ... ...... ... ... .... .... .. .. . 43 R Stande n Managing Effluent Irrigation: The Sodification Threat .......................... 45 P Donlon and A Surapaneni Spuds and Flowers: The Barwon Water Green Industry Probe .. .. ... .. ... 49 C H owi e ENVIRONMENT ·, A Future for Melbourne's Platypus ........... ...... ......... .. ........ .. ........ .. ...... 51 V P ettigrove DEPARTMENTSSubscriptions i,Va rer is sent to all A\VA members six rimes a year. It is also available via subscription.Visit the Austrail, Wate As oc1at101 HOME PAGE and access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of Information atAquaphemera ... .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. ..... .. .. ....... .. .. .. .. ....... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. . 2 International Report ............................... ....... .......... ........... ....... .. ......... ...... ...... 6 State Report ..... .. .. .. ... .. .... .. ....... .. ....... .. .. ....... .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .... 9 Membership ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... .... ...... ... ...... .... ............. .... ......... .... ....................... 55 Meetings .... ........ ...... ................................... ....... .... ...... ... .............. ............ ... ..... 56 OUR COVER: L11yi11g tl,e A BS pipe e11 ro11te to tl,e N ort/1 Adelaide P/11i11s irr(',/11tio11 project. P/1010 co11rtesy < if E11r11pipe Pty Ltd.FROMTHEPRESIDENTVIABLE WATER UTILITIES M y recent visit to the USA highlighted th e range o f i nstitutional arrangements for th e w ater industry and the significant steps taken in so1ne parts of Au stralia over the last decade to co nsolidate and update past arrangem ents. T he si tuati on in th e USA, with a pletho ra o f small w ater utiliti es, and with nervousness abo ut take o ver from private "giants", is not a good lo ng term model. H ow ever, we sti ll ha ve a way to go before we can consider to have reached a stable situation. T he pa tchw ork of institutional arrangements across Australia has yielded a range o f different models fo r running water utiliti es. Given that W estern Au strali a, So uth Australia, the N orthern T erritory and th e AC T all have single agencies responsible fo r water services, th ey are very unitary in the ir designs. In other states, though, things vary a great deal. Victoria, w ith 19 urban utilities (all state owned corporations) is o n e extrem e, w hi le Qu een sland , with so me 125 different local governme nts is at the other. NSW, w ith three statutory corporatio ns and over 120 local autho rities is mixed, as is Tasmania , w ith several differe nt models in ope ration. A common attribute o f the lo cal go vernm ent- based models is that th ere are numerous small utilities, many probably belo w a critica l mass to ope rate for o ptimum tec hni ca l a nd ec on o mi c outco mes. T he Vi ctorian situation, hardwon over several yea rs, has aggrega ted a previou s 400 or to tin y utilities into the current 19, all much more viable . This model is provin g to be successful , w ith authoriti es havin g stron ger fin ancial and reso urce bases to provide a be tte r service to customers whil e having co mpetition by comparison . Local go vern m ent agenc ies, pe rhaps w ie lding more po li tical clout than the erstw hil e Victorian water utiliti es, tend to defend their autono m y and indep endence, a natural reaction , but o ne that n eeds to be considered carefull y in the light o f cu rrent alte rnatives. Nati o nal co mpetition policy and wate r refo rm have see n p rov id ers ge ne rall y se p arate d fr om regulators . T h e local gove rnment response to th ose agendas has ma inly been to create a bu sin ess unit fo r water services, but to keep it firm ly under co ntrol o f the loca l council. T hat may en hance tra nsparency, but does not gua rantee improved effi ciency. Fo r small local government agencies, in particular, it is ha rd (perhaps impossible) to assemble th e skills and resources to deli ver water and coll ect wastew ater at competiti ve rates, and to match th e se rvice standards that are bec om ing the norm. 2WATER SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2 000Allen GaleLoo king at th e Non Major U rban W ater Auth ority Performance R eport 1998- 1999 that we have j ust published, and WSAAfac ts 99, fro1n th e Water Services Associatio n , it is instru ctive to note that th e average cost o f w ater delivery per property, fo r the 21 largest utilities, was around $164, whil e the 67 smaller utiliti es reported in N M U had a m edian cost of $187, ie 14% higher (if averages were compared fo r both , the disparity w ould be eve n large r). Imagine ho w mu ch higher the costs w ill be fo r really small authorities, since the NMU report cove rs th e mid-size d pla ye rs, se rvi ng between 10,000 and 50,000 co nn ectio ns. There are a few options fo r addressin g this situatio n . O ne already in use in Australia in three states is to conso lidate water se rvices for a regio n and to establish a j oincly ow ned busin ess co serve multiple communities. Another is to franchise out the op erations, so a pri va te player could deli ver services to multiple communities in a given regio n . B ega Shire C ouncil o n the south coast of N SW has broken the ice in that respect and is, at the time of w ritin g, searchin g for a franchisee . The most drastic option would be fo r all small co mmunities in a region to sell off their e ntire water op eratio ns co the pri vate seccor. That is unlikely co be countenanced in Australi a, thanks to w idespread con cern over the loss of ownership of assets.. Th e opti on th at suits best will have co be developed in th e context of local co nditions and policies, as well as neighbouring circumstances. T here would probably be a different model fo r eac h situatio n, but it is impo rtant fo r the stakeholde rs to start chinkin g about th ese issues now. A plan imple me nted voluntarily and w ith du e co nsiderati on is going be lot more ame nable (an d probably more successful) than o ne imposed la ter on, in political circumstances.Allen GaleAquaphemera O ve r rece nt iss u es Aqua ph e m e ra h as fo c u se d on Australian w ate r u se, a topi c bedevilled by a paucity of data the last compreh ensive national review was for the wate r yea r 1983/84 . The searc h fo r a n ew t h e m e mu se, h o w e v e r , b e p ostpon ed in order to report on Water account fo r Australia 1993/4 to 1996/97, published by the Australian Burea u of Statistics 111 M ay 2000. T he major contribution is to present annu al w ate r use statistics by sector. The key finding to em erge is that irrigated wa ter for pasture has risen to nea rly 8,000 GL p er year, approximately 40% of total national wa ter use. In comparison, all ocher irriga ted uses total close to 6,000 GL. If these fi gures are co mpared to those for 1983/84, total national w ater use has increased by 50%, chat for agric ulture by a similar am ount, w hile pasture use has risen by a staggering 70%. In contrast natio nal h o usehold use has, ove r t h e thirteen y ears, inc reased by only 2%. In te rms of quantity, the additional an nual applica tion of irrigatio n water to pasture is do uble t hat used by the household seccor in a year. The Bureau is to be congratulated on publishing data o n this long neglected topi c. However, the presentation of the data by State is to be lamented , the reason given is 'that spatially disaggregate d data [ic. by catchment] w as unavailable' . If nothing else, the last thirteen years have w itnessed the need fo r planning by ca tch111ent. A thrust o f the study is to pr es ent a n 'e nvironme ntal accounting framework ' although th e de tailed data are restricted to Victoria. E ven this is far from satisfactory as th e 'stock tables' use id e ntica l a nnu al precipitation, evapo cranspiratio n and runoff data fo r all fo ur years! I am cold that this first edition is a trial, and that the 2000-2001 editio n aims to tackle estimates at a more regionalised level. Let us hope that the N ational Water Audit, to be presented later this year by LWR.RDC , using so me of the ABS statistics, is of m ore value . As rep orted w ith tedious regularity in this column, I fail to compreh end how th e nation can claim to have a w ater policy w hen it is not known w ho uses w hat, where or for w hat purpose!Dingle SmithSTATEREPORTMINISTER ADDRESSES AWA The H on She rryl Garbutt MP , Ministe r fo r En v iro nment and C onservation was Guest Speaker at the AGM - Dinner of the Victorian Branch of the Australian Water Association where she addressed o ver 400 members and guests, following an introdu ction by Mike Muntisov, Branch President, who comme nted on the presence of some 19 CEOs of major water authorities at th e dinner. Minister Garbu tt gave a succi nct and positive message on the direction of the State Government. The succession of dry years in Australia, now in the 4th year, w ith no sign of biblical floods to reverse the situation and reservo irs at their lo west ever. She noted that getting M elbo urne consumers to save water is more difficult than Essendon losi ng the AFL Premiership, p erhaps just a touch of bias here. Sherryl Garbutt went o n to say that t he Government is committ ed to managing water to ach ieve sustainable use of water and good water quality. Action has been taken to implement COAG reforms, encompassin g bulk entitlem ents, environmental flows, farmdams and groundwater management. With 100 towns on water restrictions already, and the likelihood of restrictions spreading to M elbourne and other towns, there is a need to lift public awareness on water and its conservation. T here is a need to attribute the real va lu e of water and use it more efficiently. The aJlocation of$ 30mill ion over 3 years is to increase efficiency in the use of water and provide for economic growth and environmental improvements w hich is part of the Bracks Government commitment. The second Government commitment is on Drinking Water Q uality and to this e nd D epa rtment of Human Services and D epartment of Natural R esources and E nvi ro nment, under th e ir res p ec ti ve Mini st e rs, M ess rs Thwaites and Garbutt have launched a consulta tive framework to ensure that drinking water is safely managed. The Minister hi ghlighted the need for reform and the community sensitivity to water quality, w hich necessitates the provision of drin king water standards fo r large service providers with some flexibility for small er com munities. In short theprovision of a single State wide regulatory system for dri nking wate r in w hich the risks wou ld be managed. The Minister took the opportu nity at the dinner to deliver the inaugural launch of the Consultation Paper "A New Regulatory Framework for Drinking Water Quality in Victoria". The Minister invited responses from AWA members who had specialist kn owledge of drinking water quality and risk management. T he closing date for comments on the document was 13 October 2000, after wh ich submissions would be analysed and thence followed by workshops fo r sta keholders. It was planned that proposals would be finalised and introduced to Parliament by March 2001. • Writte 11 Comme11ts to Co 11sulta tio11 Paper close Friday 13 O ctober 2000 should be directed to: Drink ing Water Q u ali t y R eg ul atory Fra m e w ork Response to Co n su l tatio n P ap er: Direc tor, Water Sector Serl'ices, D ep artm ent of Nat ural R esources and E ,w ironmw t. Telephon e: 03 94 12 4020 Facsimile: 03 94 12 4360. Email: water.services@nre.vie.gov.auAqua Master The next generation electronic water meter • Battery or Mains Operation • Bi-Directional as standard • Buriable Sensor [sizes range from 15mm-600mm]• Submersible Sensor & Electronic Display Unit • Help to reduce leakage/ unaccounted for waterABB InstrumentationABB AutomationSydney: (02) 9540 0000 Melbourne: (03) 9837 1000 Brisbane: (07) 3848 6123 Adelaide: (02) 8279 3000 Perth: (08) 9240 0600 Tasmania: (03) 6344 9110 Email: ABB.instrumentation@au.abb.com Website: www.abb.comjl •••• 11111•••CSIROURBANWATERPROGRAMTHE URBAN WATER PROGRAM A Speers In 1998 CSIR.O e mbarked on an ambitio us research progra m directed to improving the sustainability of Australia's urban water systems. T his ini tiative was strongly supported by th e Australian water industry, through the Water Services Association of Australia, the Australian Water Association and the Cou ncil of Austra li a n Governments (CO AG ). Appreciation must also go to CS IRO's late C EO, Dr Malcolm MacIntosh, fo r his vision in supporting programs such as this, through a Special Projects Fund . Known as the U rban Water Program (UWP), th e initiative has rece ntl y concluded its feasibility stage by ide ntifyin g the most promisin g opportuniti es to improve system performance and is now proceeding to the second phase .. A fu ll description of the structure of the Urban Water Program appeared in the Septe m ber 1999 editio n of Water. T he fo llowing fea ture ou tlines the key research direc tio ns pu rsue d, and ve ry bri efl y summarises som e of the resultsEssentially, VWP researchers from the CS IR O Di v isions of Buildin g, Construction and Engineering, Molecular Science, and Land and W ater have sought to identify oppo rtu niti es to im prove system sustainabili ty by analysing existing urban water, wastewater and storm water system s, the flow of water contaminan ts through them and the life cycle costs of these systems. This enabled the dri vers of system cost and design to be identifi ed and the impact of changes to system operation and configuration to be quantified. "77w o~jea of l!fe cycle costi11,~ is to ide111{fy the 111osr eco110111ic overall choice. l11irinl wsts i11c/11de nit i1111es1111e11t costs directly relnred ro tire project, such as cosrs of pla1111i11g, desig11, co11stn1crio11 a11d i1wnllnrio11, fees n11d clin1gcs, m1df,11n11ci11g costs n11d f,11111·e wsrs. F11111rc costs co111prise opernri11,~, 111ni111e11n11ce, re/1nbilirn1io11, de1110/i1io11 l rr111011nl costs, m,d property n11d cnpirn/ gni11s taxes". (Glossary of Australian 13uilding T erms) Identifying those factors havin g the greatest impact on capital and operating costs over time enables them to be amelio-rated or en hanced. Accordingly, an extensive database has been created in the VWP through CS! RO 's own research, with the contribution from participating water companies, of lifccycle costs associated with all assets of water and wastewater systems from the off-take of water supply th rough to th e di sposal poi n t after wastewater treatm ent. W ith regard to water and contaminant flows, patterns of water co nsumption and the flow of contaminants within systems were identified. Detailed analysis was co nducted inro patterns of domestic water consumption , using a select group of 720 households, and trends in water consumption in various oth er sectors (eg commercial industrial , parks and gardens etc) fro m cities throughout the counny. An ex te nsive li terature review of contaminant loadin gs identi fied loads and load reductions at various points such as the hom e and in wetlands, treatment faci lities, etc. Contamin ant flow data was combined with water flow data in aThe Zllllocc Process ror Wastewater Treatment The ZELflocc Process provides
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