Water Journal May - June 2000

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Reliable, high performance multi-stage centrifugal pumps with innovative impeller design for improved efficiency • Delivers up to 120 m3/h@ max pressure of 28 bar • Pumps liquids from - 30°C to + 150°C • Pump efficiency of up to 80% w ith excellent suction ability.South Australia/Northern Territory (08) 8461 4611 Victoria/Tasmania (03} 9561 0111 Queensland (07) 3272 1980 New South Wales (02) 9748 8556 Western Australia (08) 9353 4595 www.grundfos.com Email: contact-au@grundfos.com ISA3824/WSVolume 27 No 3 May/ June 2000 Journal of t he Australian Water AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Andmon, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G Finl.iy,on , G A I Jokier, M Kirk. B L1bz,1, M Muntisov, N Orr, P Nadebau111, J D Parker, M Pascoe, A J Priestley. J P.. issman. F Roddick. E A SwintonCONTENTS·, Water is a refereed journal. This symbol indicates tha t a paper has been refereed.Submissions Submissions should be made to E A (Bob) Swinton, Features Editor (see below for details).General Editor P et er Stirling PO Box 84, H ampton Vic 3 188 Tel (03) 9555 7377 Fax (03) 9555 7599From the Federal President .... ............ ... ...... ...... ... .... .. ... ................. ............ .. . 2 From the Executive Director ....................................................... .. .. .............. 4 MY4 Pleasant View Crcs, Wheelers Hill Vic 3150 Tel/Fax (03) 9560 4752 Email: swintonb@c03 I .aonc.net.auAWA Head Office PO Box 388, Arta1111on, NSW 1570 Tel +61 2 94 13 1288 Email: info@awa.asn.auWater Advertising & Production Ha lhmrk Editions PO Box 84, Hampton, Vic 3188 Suite I, 350 South Road, Moorabbin Tel (03) 9555 7377 Fax (03) 9555 7599 E111ai l: hallmark@ hallcdic.co 111.auAdvertising coordination: Fiona Second Graphic design: Mitzi MannWater (ISSN 0310 · 0367) is published in January, March , May, July, September and November.Australian Water Association Inc AR.BN 054 253 066Federal President Allen G aleExecutive Director C hris DavisAWA ·1"'>INDUSTRYSubscriptions Water is sem to all AW A 111e111bers six times a year. It is also available via subscription for SSO a year.Visit the Australian Water Association HOME PAGE and access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of Information atPEOPLEWATER The Need for a New ICM Model ..................... .............. ........................... .... L Bou!Jy ·, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter in Drinking Water Supplies Part 1: Estimation of Numbers Present .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. . Part 2: Estimating the Incidence of Infection and Illness .. .. ... .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. . .. .. P Nadebaum, K Walsh and D D eere Small Water and Wastewater Systems .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ... ... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. Report by M Leake262936 44WASTEWATER ·, Effluent Irrigation of Sugar Cane - Who Pays, Who Gains? .. ... .. . .. .. 46 EA Gardn er, LE Brennan, SN Lisson and AM VieritzAUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATIONAustralian Water Association (AW A) assum es no responsibility for opinions or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers. Edito1ials do not necessarily represent official AW A policy. Advertisements are included as an infonnation se,vice to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water environ111cnt and objectives of AW A. All material in Wnrer is copyright and should not be reproduced wholly or in part w ithout the written permission of the General Editor.VIEWInterview: Jeff Wright .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... .... .. . .. .... .. . .. .... .. .. . .. .. ...... .. .. ... .. .. .. 5 Stockholm Junior Water Prize ................................. .. ......... .. ............ .......... 10 R eport by R. Curti n Young Water Scientists 2000 ............. ................... .. ........ .. ........ .. ................ 15 Report by EA (Bob) Swinton The World Water Congress .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .... ... .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . .. . 18 R.eport by EA (Bob) Swinton Enviro 2000 Sparked with Energy and Enthusiasm ...... .. .. .. ..................... 23 R.eport by D H opeIll...~OFThe Australian Urban Water Industry - Where Does it Sit? .. .................... 8 D EvansFeatures Editor EA (B ob) SwintonPOINTENVIRONMENT •, Australian Water Resources Assessment - 2000 .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. 52 WS McDo nald, C L Cre igh ton , PD Erlanger BUSINESS ·, Regulatory Standards for Water Outages - A Pipe Dream? .. .... .. ... . 58 K YoungDEPARTMENTS Aquaphemera .. ... .... .. .. .. ... ...... .. .. .. ... ........ .. .. .. .. ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .... . 2 Book Reviews ... ............................... .. .... .... ....... .. ....... .. ....... .. ......... .... .... .......... 62 Membership ... .. .. .... ..... ...... ... ..... ......... ............................................................... 63 Meetings ..... ... ........... .. ............................... ....... .. ....... .. ...... .. .......... .. .. ....... ...... .. 64 OUR COVER: The rnviro11111cntally da111aging i111pact of land clearing is starkly cvide11f in the cover photograph of a property near Bcve11dale i11 the Upper Lachla11 Catch111e11t area in southern central Ne11, South Wales. Re111oving the vegetation has triggered heavy erosio11 throughout this localised sub-catch111eut, a prob/c111 which has been co111poun ded by the rising saline waler table ,vhich has killed the trees. Photograph cou rtesy of Ke/ La11gfield of the NSW Department of Land and Water Co11servatio11.FROMTHEPRESIDENTThe Education Unit I was very pl eased wh en , at our last Fede ra l Counc il meeting, a proposal from Rod Lehmann (Directo r, Water Po li cy and Technology), to establish a National Water Education Uni t, was adopted. AWA has dabbl ed in e du ca tion up to now, producing th e Teach er's Resource CD, taking pa rt in the Canbe rra ex hibition for National Scie nce Week, and runni ng the Stockholm Junior Water Prize in Australia . Each of those initiatives has been worthy in its own right, but the sum total has not made a great deal of diffe rence to water education for Australians. Th e Apri l decision marks a sea change. It has m any of its roots in Queensland. Our Qu eensland I3ranch, under the energetic and enthusiastic leadership of Jenifer Simpson, has been working on a suite of water in formation resources (funded by the N atural H eritage Trust and due for release about now). Th e same l3ranc h un de rtook to produce an interactive display about water, so housing the proposed Educa tion Unit in the sam e Brisbane office makes good se nse. W e have noticed over the years that an erstwhile national network among water educators, which probably hit a high spot with a ¡workshop in Fremantle in 94, has gone th e way of many good initiatives in th e face of managerial ism - starvation - because it is a net cost to o rganisations . M any AW A members, though, have noti ced that making decision s abou t water in Australia (big and small) is bedevilled by th e fact that many aspects of water and o ur erratic rainfall are not understood by the community. The only way to counter that ongoing problem is to ensure that good, impartial information abo ut water is made available to the general public, users and, most important, children. Fragmented efforts by individual organisations to assemble and deliver information resources arc doomed to failu re, fo r all except th e most well-resourced enterprises. A collaborati ve effort, using shared resources, is the o nly way to succeed. Our recent name change seems to have increased our chan ces of success; as the broad-based, Water Association , our credibility is hi gher th an it was as AWW A, beari ng urban and 'dirty water' overtones. P otential partn ers are thus quite ple ntiful and the prospect of wo rkin g together with th e massive W aterw atch netwo rk is reall y quite excitin g . The In stitu tion of Engineers Australia is another potential partner, with w hom we have lo ng ties and many co111mon m embers. I particu larly like th is project because it will help to achieve two goals that I identifi ed for my term as Presiden t of AW A 2WATER MAY/JUNE 2000Allen Galeworkin g 111ore collaborati vely w ith other groups an d increasin g the profile of AWA. Undoubtedly, a successful education network is going to de111and and create a lot of co llabora ti on . Given th e vacuum in the area, there is no prospect of co111peti tio11, nor vvould it make sense. We'll have to w ork hand-i n-glove with a wide range of stake holders, from teacher's associa tion s and education departments, through to governments and all the other waterrela ted associations and research establishments. At the same tim e, A WA's presence as a facil itator of water education , and our branding on many of the resources, wi ll make m any more people aware of t he Assoc iation and its goals. W ho knows together w e may bring about some good results on the natio nal water front. Of course, an initiative like this takes vision. Clearly several of our members have vision, as the Queensland initiatives have demonstrated. It also takes partnerships and th ere seem to be good candidates for those. Money is needed, of course, and as [ write we are searching for fundin g sources that can und erwrite the first year of operatio n, unti l the Unit becomes selfsustaining. Finally, however, it needs a passionate, energeti c and entrepreneurial teacher who can take up the challenge, run the Unit, create the national network among edu cators and make it all happen. As soon as funds have hit the risk thresho ld, we w ill be out searching for that key person and , 1 hope we can say in five yea rs tim e, the rest will have been history.Allen. GaleAquaphemera Which nation uses th e m ost water per head of population? T he answer to this qu estion is fraught w ith probl ems of definition, reliability and availabi lity of data. However, it emerged at the World Wate r Conference in M elbourne that Australia is a likely candidate as th e 'biggest' user. Australian average annual data on wa t e r use h as not be e n seriously assessed since the ea rly J980s, but despite this appall ing lac k of data the pattern of use is undispute d. C lose to 80% of nationa l water us e is in the agricultural sector, overw helmingly dominated by irrigation. T h e use of the remainder is approxi m ately equally di vided betwe e n t h e d omes ti c a n d commerc ial / industrial sect ors. Spatially, som e 60% o f to tal nationa l wate r use is in th e Murray Darling Basin (MBD) and approximately half of that water is appli ed to pasture. Thus, of total average annual water use in Australia som e 30% is used to water grass in the MDB , and that excl udes crops such as lu cerne! I am loathe to add to these global compa risons but it is very likely that Australia uses a larger proportion of its water to irrigate grass t h an any other nation . Australia may be the 'biggest' water user per h ead but it is certainly not o ne of the 'best' users. Notwithstanding the lack of a good data base, most of the irrigation of pasture in the MBD still employs fl ood irrigation techn iqu es, long since abandon ed in many Third World co u ntries. These are ineffici ent in terms of quantity and have adverse effects on the salinity of soils and waters. Austral ia' s wate r r es ourc e problems are those of quality not quantity . What is ur gen tly required is better managem ent. Compe tition policy will e nsure that water w ill be diverted from those irrigators w ho still us e ineffi c i e nt and wasteful techniques to higher value uses. Happily , water for drinking and domestic use w ill never be a major limiting factor in t h e 'l ucky country'.Dingle SmithaWATERCRYPTOSPOR/0/UM AND CAMPYLOBACTER IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES Part 1: Estimation of Numbers Present P R Nadebaum, K Walsh and D Deere Abstract As pa rt of a C oo pe rative R esearch Centre fo r Water Q uali ty and Treatm ent Program 1 (H ealth Ri sk Assessment) P roj ect, m on itorin g data obta ined by Australian water au thoriti es relating to Cryptosporidi11111 and Camp ylobacter in drinki ng wate r supplies w e re re viewed and assessed co de te rmin e how t he in fo rmation shou ld be in te rp ret ed. Th e monitoring data usual ly consisted of " non detect" resul ts, w ith th e occasio nal po siti ve r esu lt, and c an be hi g h ly variable. Ofte n t he mon itoring info rmation w ill pertain only to the so urce wa ter b efo re treatm ent, and key informatio n such as th e infectivity of the organisms to humans is unlikely co be available. Because o f these facto rs, pa thoge n monito1ing data sho uld be viewed in ce1111s of providing an indicatio n of the presence of co ntamination and the general m agn itude o f the nu mbers of organ isms that are likely to be present, rather than precise results. It is impo rtant to apply j udgm ent w hen interpreting the results, particularly as co w heth er o rganism s detected are likely to be viable and infective. P art 1 of chis paper o utlines the fa c tors in volved in estim ating the nu m bers o f organisms present . Part 2 o u tlin es how information o n the numbers of o rganisms presen t ca n be used to determin ebo rn e o utbreaks o f gastro enteritis (T e uni sthe level of risk w ith regard to in fectio n and illness in th e com mu n ity.et al, 1997; Lun d, 1996) .Introduction Cryptosp orirl i11111 (protoz o a) and Ca111pylobacter (bacteria) arc pathogeni c m icro organism s associated w ith gastroenteritis. T hese o rgan ism s can be t ransmitted via a num ber o f ro u tes, incl uding th e co nsumpti o n of co ntam inate d w ater. Concentrations of Cryptosporidi11111 and Ca111pylobacter approac hing the li m its of detec tio n of curre nt analytica l m e thods have bee n reported co result in water-:l?~a:0i~ ~ ~~;; z~:00 C~~ ~ ~ AlCryptosporidium oocysts stained using a fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody.All warm blooded animal species arc pro ba b ly capab le of becoming in fec ted b y o n e o r m o re stra i ns o f t h ese pathogens, alth ough the stra ins infec ting an ima l species are not necessarily in fe ctio us to h umans. N ot surprisin gly th en , mo ni to rin g resul ts sho w t hat t h ese m icro o rga nisms are peri odically fo und in wate r suppl ies in Australia. Beca use of the ir o cc urre nce and significa nce, t hey have bee n sel ected for th is stud y fo r the pu rposes of illustrating issues relate d to th e in te rpretatio n of m o nito ring results for th e tw o classes of o rganisms, p rotozoa and bac teria. At the present time there is great un certainty regard ing the relatio n sh ip between m o nitoring results fo r o rgan isms in drinki ng w ater and the health o f the consun1er populatio n. Clear guidance is no t available for vvater authorities concen1in g the interpretation of m onitoring results and the appropriate correspondi ng ac tio n required to m.i nimise the likel.ihood of po tential illness in the comm unity . [n order to improve under~tan<lin g o f the significance of Au stralian pathogen monitoring data fo r w ate r supplies an d to w ork cowa rds ac hieving a co nsensus p ositio n o n how the risk of illn ess associCryp tosporirl i 11111 a nd a ce d w i th WATER M AY / JUNE 200029WATERTable 1: Summary of tests used by water suppliers (1991-1998). Type of testObservation Counts or P/ ADetects genusDetects speciesIndication of viabilityWhat must be assumed to have been in the sample to give a positive resultHistorical frequency of use of use scale of 1-5Campy/obacterGrowth in brothP/ AYesNoYes•~1 viable CampylobacterGrowth in broth followed by genus level DNA PCRP/AYesNoYes•~1 viable CampylobacterGrowth in broth followed by DNA PCR for speciationP/AYesYesYes• •~1 viable Campylobacter 1 viable Campy/obacter the species identified~***** ** *Cryptosporid/umMicroscopic examination of antibody (IF) labelled oocysts (with or without f low cytometry)CountsYesNoNo•~the count of Cryptosporidium oocysts (dead or alive)Microscopic examination of antibody (IF) labelled oocysts followed by FISHCountsYesYesYes•~•~the co unt of Cryptosporidium oocysts (dead or alive) the count of oocysts that are both viable and C. parvum.•~rtPC R of oocysts purified from waterP/ ACa111pylobacter should be estimated, a review of the assumptions underl ying th e estimation of risk has bee n carri ed o ut unde r a proj ect with th e C R C for Wa te r Quality and T reatm e nt. R epo rts we re prepared on th is work, and these were internati o nally p eer rev iew ed during the Cryptosporidi,1111 i11 vf/a ter con fe rence in M elbourn e (1998) (An o n , 1998) . Thi s p ap e r summari se s t h e 6ndings of this work , and su ggests how wate r supply m onitoring info rm ation fo r Cryptosporidi11111 and Ca111p ylobacter ma y be interpre ted. It is hoped that this paper will clarify som e of th e issues, and will assist the Australian water industry in th e process o f gainin g a co nsensus o n inte rpreting the risk of su ch o rganisms.Interpreting Monitoring Data Determine the Numbers of Pathogens Present in Water Occurrence of Microorganisms in Water C ryptospo ridi11111 and Ca 111p ylobacter occ ur as di screte orga nisms o r as clump s in water. T hey occur o nly o ccasio nally, and w heth e r they are d e tec ted b y m oni toring depe nds o n w h ether th e taking o f water sa mples co incide w ith the presence of o rganism s in that particular water sa mpl e. In thi s respect they are d iffere nt from substan ces w hi ch are uniforml y distributed in the water, suc h as colo ur, turbidity or dissolved salts.30WATER MAY/ JUNE 2000NoYesYes1 viable C. parvum oocystW hat types o f da ta are typically obtained by Australian water autho rities? In orde r to cha racterise th e nature of c urre nt mo ni t o ring data , samplin g programs and m on itorin g resul ts fo r Cryptosporidi11111 and Ca111p ylobacter we re obtain ed fo r th is stud y fro m som e o f the major urban wate r authorities within Australia. T h is provided direct informa tio n o n th e type o f data th at is actually obtained by Australian water authori ties. A summary of the information is sho wn in T able 1. In the maj o rity of cases, sampl es o f raw wa te r were taken fro m eithe r reservoir o r river locations, a nd anal yse d by a l ab o ra tor y fo r patho ge n s. The a n alyt ica l m e t hods provided results that we re recorded as eithe r Presence/ Abse nce (P / A) or as count data. M ost o f th e results were recorded as " none de tected" . Mu ch of th e C ryptosporidi,m, data received was co unt data, althou gh the proportion of P / A data had increased in rece nt years du e to the development of the reverse transcriptase P C R (rtPC R) me thod o f viability testin g. Althou gh the laboratori es unde rtaking th e analyses were usually NAT A accredited fo r som e tests, th is accreditation did not extend to the sp ecific analyses fo r Cryptosporidiu111 and Campylobacter w here such accreditatio n is still being developed at th e time o f w riting.Th eda tase t**** **** suppli e dforCryprosporidi11m (typically 10 or 100 L samp le volume) and Ca111pylobacter (2 L samp le volum e) were largely take n as single samples in isolation at one dilutio n , though repli cates were obtained for a few locati o ns. Samples we re typically taken o n a weekly or monthly basis with many of the organisatio ns perform ing o ne-off surveys at geographi cally distinct sites. R esul ts o f thi s typ e lac k statistical stre ngth. H o we ver, to o bta in statisti cally vali d results would require mu ch greater sa mpl e numbe rs, and this b ec om es prohibitive in cost. It ca n be concl ud ed that ve ry few microorganism monitorin g programs will be su
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