Water Journal May - June 1999

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When you're under pressure to provide water on demand ...Grundfos Hydro 2000 offers flexibility, efficiency and choice./'~GRUNDFOS®~~,.1/.1/.)South…
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When you're under pressure to provide water on demand ...Grundfos Hydro 2000 offers flexibility, efficiency and choice./'~GRUNDFOS®~~,.1/.1/.)South Australia/Northern Territory (08) 8461 4611 Victoria/fasmania (03) 9561 0111 Queensland (07) 3272 1980 New South Wales (02) 9748 8556 Western Australia (08) 9353 4595 www.grundfos.com ISA·J743·WTVolume 26 No 3 May/June 1999 Journal Australian Water & Wast ewater AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Anderson, D Deere, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G Fmlayson, GA Holder, P Johnstone, M Kirk, P Nadebaum, N Orr, J D Parker, M Pascoe, A J Priestley,] Rissman, F Roddick, EA Swinton·, Water is a refereed journal. This symbol indicates that a paper has been refereed.General Editor Margaret Metz, email: mmetz@awwa.asn.au AWWA Feder,il Office (see postal address below)CONTENTS From the Federal President ... ......... .. ....... ... .. ..................... ....... .. ................... 2 From the Executive Director .... ...... .............................. .. ................... ............. 4Features Editor EA (Bob) Swinton 4 Pleasant View Cres, Wheelers Hill Vic 3150 Tel/ Fax (03) 9560 4752 Email: swintonb@c031.aone.net.auMYNorthern Territory - Mike Lawton Tel (08) 8924 6411 Fax (08) 8924 6410Queensland - Tom Belgrave T e l (07) 3810 7967 Fax (07) 3810 7964South Australia - Angela Colliver T e l (08) 8227 1111 Fax (08) 8227 I 100Tasmania - Ed K.leywegt Tel (03) 6238 2841 Fax (036) 234 7 I 09Victoria - Mike Muntisov Tel (03) 9278 2200 Fax (03) 9600 1300 Western Australia - Jane Oliver Tel (08) 9380 7454 Fax (08) 9388 1908Advertising & AdministrationOFVIEWEvery Drop Counts ........................................................................................... 3R WelfordBranch Correspondents ACT - Ian Bergman Tel (02) 6230 1039 Fax (02) 6230 6265 New South Wales - Leonie Hu.xedurp Tel (02) 9895 5927 Fax (02) 9895 5967POINTCATCHMENT HYDROLOGY Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology Special Feature ..... 7 Meeting Industry Needs ... ... ......... ... ....................... .. .. ..................... ... ........... .. 8RMein Let's Get the Hydrological Facts Straight! ......... ...... .. .. .. ...... .. ... .... .. ............. 9J Langford Sources of Sediment and Phosphorus in Tarago Reservoir .............. ...... 11F J Dye r, J M Olley, G A Moore, AS Murray Trees on HIiis: Better Growth = Less Waterlogglng ............ ........... .. .. ....... 13 RP Silberstein, D L M cj annet, R. A Vertessy AQUACYCLE: An Urban Water Reuse Computer Model ............................. 17 G Mitchell, R. Mein, T McMahon Reducing Salt Exports from an Irrigated Catchment at Barr Creek, Victoria ............ .... ...................................................................... 21AWW A Federal OfficeM GilfedderPO Box 388, Artarmon NSW 1570Using Radar to Predict Floods ..................... .. ........ ...................................... 25Level 2, 44 Hampden Road, Artarmon Tel (02) 9413 1288 Fax (02) 9413 1047 Email: info@awwa.asn.au Advertising: Angela Makris Graphic Design: Elizabeth Soo (formerly Wan)Water (ISSN 0310 - 0367) is published six times per year: January, March, May,July, September, November byAustralian Water & Wastewater Association Inc ARBN 054 253 066AW Seed , P Jordan, X Su n, R Srikanthan, J Elliott Trees for Profit and a Healthy Watertable? ........ .... ................. .................. 28 RP Silberstein, R. A Vertessy,J Morris, PM Feikema Technology Transfer: Satisfying the Thirst for Better Tools and Knowledge ..... ... .... ............. .. ................. .................................................. 32D Pe rry WATER ·, Dissolved Organic Matter in Reservoirs: A Review .. .... ......................... 35KM SparkFederal PresidentWASTEWATERGreg CawstonExecutive Director Chris Davis Au stralian Water & Wastewater Association (A WW A) assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of facts expressed by contribmors or advertisers. Editorials do not necessarily represen t official A WW A policy. Ad vertisements are included as an information service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water en vironment and objectives of AWW A. All material in Water is copyright and should not be reproduced wholly or in part without the written permjssion of the General Editor.Subscriptions Water is sent to all members of AWW A as one of the privileges of membership. Non-members can obtain Water on subscription at an annual subscription rate of$50 (surface mail).Visit the Australian Water & Wastewater Association I HOME PAGE 1 and 11C0111 our calendar, bookshop, membarahlp forms and !() P81118 of Information at.·, Effluent Irrigation in Queensland: Modelling Sustainable Loading Rates .. 39X Hu ENVIRONMENT Outcome-focused ... Draft Environmental Water Quality Guidelines .......... 43E A (Bob) Swinton BUSINESS Water and the GST ..................................... ... ....... ................ .. .. .... .. ............... 46D Kuhne DEPARTMENTS From the Top of the Well ........ ............. ......... .. ........................................... .... 4 International Aff Ill ates ...... ..... .. ......................... ..... .. .. .. ... .. ............................ 5 Books ............................ ..................... ..... ...... ... .......... ........ ......... ........ 38, 41, 42 Meetings ... ...... .. ... .. ... .... ... ... ....... ... .... ...... ...... ... ................... ........................... 48 OUR COVER : The CRC for Catchment H ydrology has a vision of the sustain-able management of the nation's water resources through an integrated approach to landuse, water allocation, hydrologic risk and environmental values (see C R C fea ture this issue). Photo of Tasmanian stream above Lake Vera courtesy of Peter Hairsine, CSIRO Land and WaterFROMTHEPRESIDENTWould You Buy Secondhand Water? A looming issue all around Australia is that of facing up to the immutable water cycle. Used water has to go somewh ere and inevitably some of the wa ter we u se has been used before. The head-in-the- sand attitude is to pretend this d oes not h appen, that water discha rged into a river and then withdrawn downstream has somehow miraculously lost its taint and that it is good for use. In many respects, perceptions rather than science rule in this situation. The politically correct view is that putting used water into any waterbody is bad, but 'reuse' is good and must be enforced as widely as possible, even when real environmental o utcomes may be negative and the so-called reuse makes no econo1nic sense. On the other hand, several protagonists see a limited role for reuse, b ecause they are co n cerned about h ealth risks. The community at large may fall into this ca tegory, because people simply don't understand the issu es, processes and risks. H ealth regulators in general and a slice of the water practitioner group falls into this category too. If supplying wate r to p eople means picking the best possible source, using sewage as a starting point is simply anathema. This creates serious dilemmas fo r people w h o have to implement water cycle management. They are operating in an environment w h ere there are unrealistic expectations as to how muchwater could be reused and seve re constraints on how it can be used. Both the community and the environment are going to pay dearly unless these inconsistencies can be removed. As far as a solid, analytical appreciation is concerned, the current CSIRO Urban Water Cycle Program should soon begin to produce some mathematical models to predict just how effective water reu se can be. Pioneering work being done in many communities will also help, some of it funded und er the Na tural H e ritage Trust Fund. T hat will p rovide practical demonstrations fo r us to learn from. Great strides of understanding are needed , though, among community members, regulators and designers about how the ri sks associated withwater reuse can be compared with other daily risks in life . Insistence o n a zero ri sk approach is co unter-produ ctive, because it implies that it is irresponsible to even consider potable reu se. The application of rational risk analysis and management strategies will, I believe, ill ustrate th at potable reuse of effluent is practically ac hievable and help to weigh up the costs and benefits. Recent moves at the national level to exa mine this question dispassionately are therefore most welcome and should be encouraged . Water reuse is too big an issue to be either slipped in surreptitiously or ignored. Vigorous and ope n airing by all stakeholders is the only way it can be thrashed out to the p oint w here everyone can comprehend all the ramifications-to the environme nt, health and the economy . Au stralia's variable climate and fragile waterways demand flexibility and pragmatism from th eir custodians. It is also important to acknowledge tha t direct potable reuse is one extrem e on a con tinuum fro m no reuse (patently unrealistic) to complete reu se. Risk management studies w ill illuminate just where we should be on the spectrum for eac h situation . An informed com munity will be ready to listen to th e facts and support rational decisions. W e need a national, collaborative effort to ensure that the necessary information is delivered, impartialJy and widely, to all age groups. Greg CawstonTap Into A Vital Resource Become a member of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association Dr/ Ms/Mr First name ................................................................................................................ Last name ........ ......... ........... .................. ....... ... Position .. Organisation .......................... .................................................................................................... . Postal address ........................................................................................... ................... .............. . ... ..... .... .... .... ..... .... .... ......... .... ......... .... .... .... ........ StateQ MasterCardQ BankcardPlease tick t he appropriate membership cat egory:0 Individual ............................................ .. ... AU$85 0 St udent (enclose proof of full-time status) ....... AU$26 0 Sustaining .... ..... ... .............. .................... AU$465............. Postcode .......... .Email ............................................................................................................................................ . Q VisaAUSTRALIAN WATE R AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATIONa American ExpressPLEASE PHOTOCOPY & RETURN THIS FORM TO: AWWA, PO Box 388, Artarmon NSW 1570Q Cheque attachedCost of a local call within Australia 1300 361 426 Telephone: (02) 9413 1288Name on cardFacsimile: (0 2) 9413 1047Expiry date . Signature 2WATER M AY/JUN E 1999Date.JEmail: info@awwa.asn.au Internet: http://www.awwa.asn.auMYPOINT OF VIEWEvery Drop Counts R Welford Rod Welford Is the Queensland Minister for Environment and Heritage and Natural Resources.Over the past few decades many Australians have forgo tten that we live on one of the driest contine nts on Earth. W hether we like it or not, many aspects of our lives are dictated by water in some form or other. The majority of our rapidly growing population is crammed into a narrow coastal strip where there is access to safe, clean dri nking water. Similarly, ou r rural industries have developed in close proximity to rivers. Recently, debate has intensified over the way in which we dispose of o ur effluent and wastewater. The drinking wa ter sca re in Sydney last year made peop le m uch more aware of water qu ality issues. In Queensland, good management over many years by local governments has e nabled the sta te to become Au stralia's most decentralised. O u r population 1s spread over many thousands of kilometres. Even the most conservative population estimates suggest Queensland will grow markedly over the next 50 years. Sou t h-east Queensland will pass Melbou rne as Australia's second largest metropolitan area in a few years. T his places press ure on us all to maintain liveability-to make sure air, wa ter and noise fi t properly into the eq u ation. If we are to maintain and improve our quality oflife , we wi ll have to manage our resou rces wisely. Over the past 30 years in Q ueensland the re has been a concentrati on on development of new water infrastructu re-dams, weirs and storage facil ities-to cope with the commu nity's growing water needs, wi thout putting the same effort into ways to u se water more efficiently. The Queensland Labor Government is attempting to persuade the com munity, particularly ru ral industry, that ecologically sustainable developm ent is a smart lo ng- term strategy. We cann ot co n tinu e looking at our resources with short-term views. Va rious studies have demonst rated the irreparable damage caused to o ur environmen t by E uropean settlement in Australia. M uch of this development was carried ou t withou t understanding the long- term imp acts. It is quite natural that many ruralprodu cers worry about their short-term fu ture, thei r incomes, their families and their fut ure. Many hear the noises emanating from Gove rnme nt abo ut water conservation an d fear th e worst. Since coming to office, the Beattie Government has progressed a new co n cept to sustain our wa terways w ith the WAMP, or Water Al location Managem ent Plan process. The state's fi rst W AMP will be completed fo r the Fitzroy Basin. A draft plan was completed in September th is year and released for public consultation. A number o f key stakeh olders , in clu ding the Queensland Fa rmers Federation , sough t additional time to comment o n the plan. The Government agreed to extend th e time for consultatio n , taking the view that it was more im portant to get it right than to rush . The aim is a workable plan t hat creates a framework for the sustai nable use of the region's waterways. We want to balance agricultural, industrial and domestic water uses with the environmental needs of the catchment. It is a complex equation and in this particular case it is com plicated by the pre-existing assumption that a new dam should be built on the Dawson River. Avid poli tical watchers would have noticed the Nathan Dam has gene rated much comment from the same quarters as those who are keen to build withou t regard to what proper planning studies might suggest. While the W AMP process is an important platform upon which we can start to sustain our waterways, so too is better use of our existing water resources. The Government is e n couraging indu stry an d local government toexamine closely the more efficient use of water and the reuse of wastewater. A proposal co ncerning the piping of Brisbane's wastewater to the Lockyer Valley and Da rling Downs for irrigation has attracted considerable media attention over the past 12 months. I am awaiting a report on the feasi bility of such a proj ect. Further n orth , the Mackay City Cou ncil is about to commence a feasibility study for reu se of effluent from the Mt Bassett and B ucasia Sewerage Treatment Plants for irrigation of cane. Another important cu rrent project is the Q ueensland Wastewater Reuse Strategy. T his proj ect aims to produce a w ho le-of-government strategy covering all areas of water reclamation. I believe we have only scratched the su rface of the enormous potential fo r better management and efficiency of water use and water recycli ng strategies. T here is a need fo r thorough community understanding of water and wastewater issues. Com munity education and awareness will be a critical part of this process. The Queenslan d Governme n t is working with the rural sector, industry and local government to i ntroduce wa te r efficiency initia tives in both urban and rural environments. T hese measu res are p art of a longterm strategy. Naturally, there will be teethi ng problems as various industry sectors adjust to a new vision of the fu ture. Every Queenslander can benefit fro m better use of water because, over time, it mea ns governments may be able to delay or even elim.inate expensive water solutions. Funds can be made available for other essential public services. At present, the pressu re o n our waterways is intense. Many catchments are badly degraded fro m years of overuse and or neglect. A record number of fis h kills in Queensland during 1998 highlighted water quality issues. T he strategies I have discussed in this article o u tline, in broad terms, the Government's ou tlook for the future. Wi th our state's ideal climate, more and more people want to eajoy the lifestyle Q ueensland offers. T his means we have to sustain and ma nage ou r resources, particularly water, in a way that guarantees we can main tain and im prove quali ty of life for generations to come. WATER M AY/ JUNE 19993FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTORWhat's In A Name? Our Association has proudly borne its present name since its inception. But times change, and so do associations. When AWWA was established 37 years ago, the agenda driving its founding members was that of building the much needed infrastructure to provide adequate water supplies and sewerage for our major cities. The old-fashioned wo rd 'sewage' was replaced by the more modern (and euphemistic) term 'wastewater.' T hus the name, 'Australian Water and Wastewater Association' was a good one for the early Association. As the first multi-disciplinary association to address itself entirely to water issues, AWW A provided valua ble professional development and networking opportunities for its members and the communities that relied on them. By the mid 1980s much of the necessary infrastructure had been built and some acute sanitation problems had been solved for cities. At the same time, practitioners who had previously operated in separate boxes (labelled stormwater, water supply o r wastewater) began to find that they could not operate independently of one another. A major strategic planning exercise threw up the need for AWWA to play a broader role in the water cycle, and for membership to be more freely available to anyone with an interest in water. It was abou t this time that our first Executive Director, Peter Hughes, took up the reins and put his stamp on AWWA affairs. Since then, things have continued to change at a cracking pace. Terminology and jargon generally have moved on, so now the old terms associated with sanitation have some pejorative connotations. AWW A's membership is broader, including people with interests in every facet of water, from environmental flows in rivers to the management of salinity in the landscape . Labels like 'wastewater' have the potential to turn some people off, either because they work in an unrelated area, or because of the negative connotations of dirty water. T here is a growing awareness amongst AWW A members that our current name may not be ideal for the 4WATER MAY/ JUNE 1999millennium. Many members now have little to do with 'wastewater' and don't like the connotation anyway-all water is part of the cycle and needs to be valued for its intrinsic properties, not its current condition o r source . A major industry and community debate is looming abou t the merits of taking secondhand water and using it again. This is a debate in which perceptions and prej udices will play a major role. As Angela Makris explained in the last issue of Water, in the modern world much hangs on how people react to the names of products, companies and associations. In 1999 it is quite difficult to sell our modern, outward-looking Association, with its diverse, four-thousand-strong membership under the banner of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association. Apart from
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