Water Journal May - June 1996

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J<(za::::, 0 JAUSTRALIAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATIONVolume 23, No 3 May/June 1996Editorial Board¡coNTENTSF R Bishop, ChairmanASSOCIATION NEWS From the…
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J<(za::::, 0 JAUSTRALIAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATIONVolume 23, No 3 May/June 1996Editorial Board¡coNTENTSF R Bishop, ChairmanASSOCIATION NEWS From the Federal President From the Executive Director2 4B N Anderson, G Cawston, M R Chapman P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G A Holder M Muntisov, P Nadebaum,J D Parker AJ Priestley,] RissmanAdvertising & AdministrationMY POINT OF VIEW Building a Strong Australian Water Industry3Tony Wright ¡WASTEWATER FEATURE - CRC FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL Overview of CRC for Waste Management & Pollution ControlFeatures Editor 8I Fergus Advanced Wastewater Management10J Keller MEDLI - Bringing Effluent Irrigation Design Into the 21st Century12R Davis, E Gardner Membrane Technology for Wastewater Reuse15A WDay Advanced Constructed Wetlands: An Ecotechnology Option for Today17HJ Bavor Modelling Aerobic Denitrification20E von Munch, J Keller, P Lant WATER Biological Iron and Manganese Removal: an Untapped Potential25I Cameron Granular Activated Carbon Pilot Plant StudiesARBN 054 253 066Federal President36Executive DirectorMark PascoeChris DavisI Bergman ENVIRONMENT 39NJ Schofiel.d, PE Davies Environmental Auditing of Wastewater Treatment Plants44P Nadebaum, P Drew, W Drew DEPARTMENTS International Affiliates From the Bottom of the Well Books New Products Meetingsis published six times per year: January, March, May,July, September, November by35T SpurlingMeasuring the Health of Our RiversACT - Ian Bergman Tel (06) 248 3133 Fax (06) 248 3806 New South Wales - Mitchell Laginestra Tel (02) 412 9974 Fax (02) 412 9876 Northern Territory - Ken Mcfarlane Tel (089) 24 7363 Fax (089) 24 7161 Queensland - Ted Cusack Tel (07) 3244 9600 Fax (07) 3244 9699 South Australia - Peter Martin Tel (08) 303 8723 Fax (08) 303 8750 Tasmania - Dao Norath Tel (002) 332 .596 Fax (002) 347 559 Victoria - Mike Muntisov Tel (03) 9600 1100 Fax (03) 9600 1300 Westem Australia - Alan Maus Tel (09) 420 246.5 Fax (09) 420 3178Australian Water & Wastewater IncBUSINESSNetworking the German and Australian Water IndustriesBranch CorrespondentsWater (ISSN 0310 - 0367) 32 34M Muntisov, P TrimboliAustralia Exports Electromagnetic FlowmetersE A (Bob) Swinton 4 Pleasant View Cres, Glen Waverly Vic 31.50 Tel/ Fax (03) 9560 475229G Newcombe, A Collett, M Drikils, B Roberts Stockholm Water Prize to lmberger Removal of Algal Toxins Using Membrane TechnologyAWWA Federal Office Editorial: Helen Cumming Advertising: Sandra Brennan PO Box 388 Artarmon NSW 2064 Level 2, 44 Hampden Road, Artarmon Tel (02) 413 1288 Fax (02) 413 10475 6 47 47 48OUR COVER Australian Environmental Technolof!j for a Cleaner Worl.d The CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control Limited, Australia 's leading environmental research and development organisation, is devoted to finding commercially viable solutions to major environmental challenges that impact on the quality of air, water, soils and landscapes.Australian Water & Wastewater Association assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers and editorials do not necessarily represent the official policy of the organisation. Display and classified advertisements are included as an informational service to readers and are reviewed by the Editor before publication to ensure their relevance to the water environment and to the objectives of the Association. All material in Water is copyright and should not be reproduced wholly or in part without the written permission of the E4itor.Subscriptions Water is sent to all members of the AWWA as one of the privileges of membership. Non members can obtain Water on subscription at an annual subscription rate of $35 (surface mail).Q ~-CRC FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROLOVERVIEW OF CRC FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL I FergusThis feature outlines the activities of this CRC in the area of wastewater. It describes in detail four of the projects which are at the stage of commercialisation. The authors of these reports can be contacted through Ian Fergus at CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control Ltd, University ofNSW Ph (02) 385 5774 Fax (02) 662 1971. The Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program is a brave experiment by the Federal Government, launched in May 1990 to solve the problems of poor links between research and development, and business opportunities, as well as providing a new way of managing and supporting research. The Program has established 62 centres of excellence in fields as diverse as information technology, agriculture, medical science, mining, energy and the environment. Over the seven years until they become self-funding, the CRCs have a collective budget of $2. 7 billion, with 310/o coming from the Federal Government, 140/o from industry and the rest from universities, publicly funded laboratories and state government departments. The CRC program emphasises the importance of developing an international competitive environmental management industry. The CRCs are now an established element of Australia's culture. Since over one quarter of the program's investment comes from the Australian taxpayer, you should be interested to learn about the outcomes from the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control Ltd. With 15 member organisations including world ranked corporations, leading Australian research institutions and major government departments and a budget of $50 million, the CRC is a powerhouse of skills, expertise and relevant experience devoted to the task of developing viable solutions to major environmental problems that impact on the quality of air, water, soils and landscapes. The CRC's research programs are focused to address the following issues: waste reduction and minimisation; sewage treatment and water quality; contaminated site remediation; instrumentation and monitoring; the disposal of waste from intensive rural industries; onsite treatment of liquid waste; safe disposal of liquid wastes as solids; control of odours 8and atmospheric emissions; social ecology of waste management; improved design and control of waste treatment operations; solid waste disposal. A broad cross section of the Australian environment industry is represented through the members of the CRC. It is the most commercially oriented of the 12 environment CRCs and operates as an incorporated company owned by its members.Research Program Projects managed in the Wastewater Research Program include: advanced constructed wetlands for nutrient removal from wastewater; compact wastewater treatment plants; membrane systems for wastewater re-use; on-line monitoring of industrial pollutants; automatic analysers for phosphate and algal biomass; treatment of waste streams from intensive rural industries; novel conducting membranes for treating industrial effluents; optimal management of water treatment plant residuals; design and control of biological wastewater treatment plants.Where We Are At Now entering its fifth year the CRC is about to launch several innovative wastewater management/environmental technologies. Four of the products generated from the research program to be introduced to the market during 1996 are: Project 2.1. Advanced ConstructedWetlands Technology in Pollution Control: Integrated Nutrient Removal/ Pollutant Management. Over the past three years, the CRC has invested around $3.0m to generate operational data and an understanding of system performance on advanced constructed wetland technology for sewage polishing applications. A new company,Australian Constructed Wetlands Technology , is being formed by CRC members NSW Department of Land & Water Conservation and the University ofWestern Sydney, to exploit this technology development. Project 2.5. Membrane Systems for Wastewater Re-use. This project involvesthe development of membrane-based processes for the treatment of sewage to produce water for re-use up to potable quality standard. A unique combination of experience within the CRC has been brought together involving Memtec, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology (UNSW) and NSW Public Works and Services. Memtec will commercialise the outcomes of this re;earch. This project is focussed on production of quality water for local needs by extracting and treating sewage from the nearest sewer. Simplicity of operation of the principal process avoids the need for secondary treatment. Independent technical review by world recognised experts concluded that this novel technology development is unique and offers several major advantages and significant potential benefits to the wastewater community. Extensive pilot plant operation has demonstrated that the screening/microfiltration system is effective in achieving the feedwater quality to suit reverse osmosis {RO) final stage treatment. This CRC is proceeding to Stage 2, incorporating RO and will complete this research phase late 1996. Project 5.1 - Management of Waste Streams Usi,ng Land Irrigation. MEDLI®{Model for Effluent Disposal using Land Irrigation) is a computerised model for the management of effluent disposal, developed jointly by the CRC and the Queensland Department of Primary Industry with funding support from the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation, the Urban Water Association of Australia and the Pig Research and Development Corporation. Initially MEDLI® will be applied to effluent disposal from intensive rural industries and sewage treatment plants. MEDLI®is in the final Beta testing phase. WATER MAY/ JUNE 1996Project 10.1. Improved Design & Control of Waste Treatment Operation.This project, led by the Queensland Node of the CRC, part of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the U:niversity of Queensland has been operating since 1992. The CRC has invested $3 million in this large R&D project to be completed by mid 1996. This research team has developed a strong expert base in wastewater treatment ponds, biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge plant, high rate anaerobic treatment operations, microbiology of wastewater treatment systems. The research team has been appointed to lead a IR&D Board project to demonstrate the modelling and simulation of BNR systems, in collaboration with Sydney Water Corporation, NSW ¡ Department of Land and Water Conservation and Water Studies Centre of Monash University. The wastewater activities in the Queensland Node of the CRC will soon be integrated into a new Advanced Wastewater Management (AWM) Centre. The AWM will further strengthen the expertise and knowhow of the R&D team. Products generated by this research project will be commercialised during 1996. Detailed information on the above research projects is featured in the articles that follow this overview.WATER MAY/ JUNE 1996Interactive Linkages The Cooperative Research Centres Water Forum initiated in 1995 is a group of CRCs with a common interest in water related issues. The five CRCs in this Forum are CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control, CRC for Catchment Hydrology, CRC for Freshwater Ecology, CRC for Soil and Land Management, CRC for Water Quality and Treatment. The Forum will explore areas of joint research and international activities and will provide a platform from which members may contribute to the political and community debate regarding water and environment management issues. Environment Management. The CRC has began to commercialise its outcomes through both its members and other suitable partners. This challenging task is enhanced by the CRC's links with the Department of Industry, Science and Technology, the Environment Management Industry Association of Australia and their joint initiative, the Environment Industry Development Network (EIDN). The EIDN is administered by the CRC and it is funded by $4.5 million over four years from DIST's Auslndustry Program. The main mission of the EIDN is capability building, consortia formation, project facilitation and project financing to accelerate the development of an internationally competitive industry. Some key industry problems theEIDN aims to overcome are: the small size of Australian firms, lack of prime contractor capability, access to leading edge and export markets and commercialisation of innovative technologies. EIDN is based at the CRC's central office in Sydney and also has offices in Brisbane and Canberra.How to Get Involved? The CRC system has changed the approach of Australian researchers so that stronger links are being developed with research users, particularly industry. Our CRC is keep to interact more effectively with small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the water management industry. We are is currently formulating a strategy to ensure access by SMEs to our research and training activities eg. the use of our CRC for demonstration sites, sponsorship of postgraduate students and assistance of SME employees to work in our CRC on a temporary secondment basis. The author would welcome approaches from SMEs interested in collaboration in these areas.Author Ian Fergus has a wide background in water and wastewater engineering and membrane technology involving both applied research and commercial application. He is Program Manager, Water and Wastewater, for the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control.90CRC FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLLUTION CONTROLADVANCED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT j Keller The Queensland Node of the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control, situated in The University of Queensland, has been operating since ¡ 1992. A large project on "Improved Design and Control of Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants" (Project 10.1) has been the main activity in the water sector of the Node since then. This R&D project has developed a strong expert base in a wide range of wastewater treatment aspects such as wastewater treatment ponds, biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) activated sludge plants, high-rate anaerobic treatment operations, and microbiology of wastewater treatment systems. In all these areas, the focus of the research work is on the effective and successful integration of existing expertise in the areas of process engineering, information technology and environmental microbiology. The University of Queensland, and in particular the two Departments involved, has a strong background in these fields. The R&D challenges posed in modem wastewater treatment processes require expertise in all of these areas as the technologies and the operational possibilities are becoming increasingly more advanced but also more complex. This development is not much different from past experience in various process industries where at some stage effective improvement and optimisation is dependent on the utilisation of a wide range of skills and experience. Based on this overall strategy, a large project team was established early in 1992 to address challenges in the four areas listed above. In that sense, this project is significantly different from most other CRC WMPC projects in that it is involved in four different research fields which are quite separate but all are related to and certainly benefit from each other. The team includes three principal researchers (at academic or postdoctoral level), eight postgraduate students, an administrator and a number of academics with part-time involvement. The central location of the whole project team in The University of Queensland has proved to be a major benefit to the project. Direct day-to-day interaction between the 10researchers in various fields and of different backgrounds is strongly encouraged. This is the key element in achieving effective cross-disciplinary collaboration. The research focus, the outcomes to date and the future direction are summarised in the following sections. These are, necessarily, quite short and somewhat superficial, but detailed scientific and technical papers have been published in the past in Water (Lant and Steffens, 1995, Pollard et al, 1995, Bond et a~ 1994) and a number of international journals. One further example (von Munch et a~ 1996) is included in this current issue. All of these publications are available from the CRC WMPC Queensland Node.and utilisation of what is one of the most economical form of wastewater treatment. The team has developed a radically new approach to pond design by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the flow pattern in the pond. Because the technique is based on the fundamental mass, impulse and energy balances it enables, for the first time, the prediction of effects caused by pond shape, inlet/ outlet structures, aerators and baffles on the flow behaviour in the pond. This method offers significant benefits both for upgrades of existing ponds and the design of new ones. Based on the improved understanding of the hydrodynamics in a pond, existing knowledge , of the biological wastewater treatment principles allows the development of a more efficient design and operational strategy for ponds. A pilot study aimed at improving the nutrient removal performance of aerated ponds treating industrial wastewater is underway in collaboration with the Meat Research Corporation. We have made good progress to date and are currently validating the models with actual data from ponds. Nevertheless, a range of issues will need to be addressed further in the future. These will include fundamental aspects such as the detailed verification of three-dimensional CFD models but also more practical problems related to the selection and characterisation of aerators in the overall design process.Activated Sludge TreatmentProject 70. 7 - Drilling to check ifgroundwater is contaminated by nearby wastewater treatment pondClever Ponds The objective of this research work is to improve the hydrodynamics {flow pattern) in ponds and the nutrient removal capacity of these wastewater treatment systems. These are seen as two major opportunities in the further developmentThe research in this area focuses on operational aspects of these treatment plants based on a process engineering perspective. This strategy¡ has been chosen for two main reasons. Firstly, in most process industries significant improvements can be achieved with optimisation of the operational conditions including process control, particularly with systems that have widely varying input streams as is certainly the case in most wastewater treatment facilities. Secondly, the industry seems to be strong in design expertise but relatively weak in operational skills and knowledge. WATER MAY/JUNE 1996The aim of the research team (and an increasing number of operators) is to achieve improved effluent quality control at minimal capital and operating costs. This will lead to increased treatment capacity for new or existing plants. The main focus of this work has been on Biological Nutrient Removal processes as they are becoming more popular but also put significant demands on the operator skills. Furthermore, while the process is successfully applied in a number of full scale plants, the fundamental understanding is still quite limited. The collaboration between microbiologists and process engineers has already achieved significant progress and will be even more valuable in the future . The research work incorporates modelling and simulation of BNR systems, .controller development and investigations on prefermentation systems. Further development, demonstration and commercialisation of these technologies is underway as part of a recently commenced, $2.4m IR&D Board project in collaboration with Sydney Water Corporation, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation and The Water Studies Centre (Monash University). This project has the potential to generate an international reputation for the team as the research is on a par with the leading countries in wastewater treatment technologies.Anaerobic Treatment The use of (high-rate)
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