Water Journal March 2001

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MARCH 2001Volume 28 No 2 March 2001Journal of the Australian Water AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop , Chairman B N Anderson, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G…
MARCH 2001Volume 28 No 2 March 2001Journal of the Australian Water AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop , Chairman B N Anderson, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G Finlayson, GA H older, M Kirk, 13 L1bza, M Muntisov, N Orr,CONTENTSP Nadebaum, J D Parker, M Pascoe, A J Priestley, J R.isslllan , F R.oddick, E A Swinton[ ·,I Wateris a refereed journal. This symbolindicates that a paper h as been refereed.Submissions Submissions should b e made to E A (!3ob) Swinton, Features Editor (see below for details).Managing Editor Peter Stirling PO !3ox 84, H ampton Vic 3188 T el (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 891 12FROM THE FEDERAL PRESIDENT: A Name By Any Other Name ...4 6 8FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Time to Rethink Our Approach to Members MY POINT OF VIEW: Mike Keegan, Tyco Wa ter Pipelines10CROSSCURRENT: Water News Around the Nation22WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES: The Amsterdam Conference: Ma ry DrikasINTERNATIONAL AFFILIATES: Melbourne to be the Focus for World Water in 2002Features Editor E A (Bob) Swinton 4 Pleasant View Cres, Wheelers Hill Vic 3 I50 Tel/ Fa x (03) 9560 4752FEATURES: CENTRE FOR WATER RESEARCH, University of Western AustraliaEmail: bswimon@bigpond.net.auSpeci ali sing in the dynam ics of la kes and reservoirs, affecting water q ua lityCrosscurrent Editor W (Bill) R ees PO !3ox 388, Artannon, NSW 1570 Tel +6 1 2 94 13 1288 Fax: (02) 9413 1047 Email: brecs@awa.asn.auAWA Head Office P O Box 388, Artarrnon, NSW 1570 Tel +6 1 2941 3 1288 Fax: (02) 9413 1047 Elllail: info@awa.asn.au26 30Overview: J lm berger, C Wood Lake Kinneret, Israel: Water Quality Management:34Lake Burragorang Dynamics: The Sydney 'Boil Water' Alerts: J36 38The Swan River: Waler Quality: D P Hamilton Lake Pamvotis, Greece: Management Strategies:41Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela:Anten ucciJ RomeroD Horn, P Yeates, B Lava l, J Im berger,A Find ika ki sWater Advertising & Production46H allmark EditionsG Gal, T ZoharyLake Diagnostic System: S FeaverP O Box 84, H ampto n, Vic 3188 Level I , 99 Bay Street, Brighton , Vic 3186 Tel (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 89 I I Email: hall, nark@halledit.co m.auWATER 48l \ METALS IN DRINKING WATER IN NEW HOUSING ESTATES: G Rajarat nam, C W inder, M An . First flush is toxicGraphic design: Mitzi MannWater (ISSN 0310 · 0367) is published in January, M a rch, April, Ju ne, Jul y, September, October and December.Australian Water Association IncP Gebbie. A practical look at the physical chemistry of water treatment57AWA~A.BN 74 054 253 066Federal President Allen GaleAUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATIONExecutive Director C hris Davis\ WATER CONDITIONING AND STABILITY ASSESSMENT: AN INTRODUCTION:SO·, STABILISATION AND BUFFERING OF WATER: CAUTIONARY ASPECTS: R J Turney, PR NadebaumNoting the complicating effects of phosphates and organicsSEWAGE60-.:. COMMISSIONING OF ASMALL STP: A "SMALL" SUCCESS: PR L M asseDetailed solutions for an underloaded plant64·, NITROGEN REMOVAL: COMPARING TWO OXIDATION DITCH PLANTS:Australia n Water Association (A WA) assumes noEv Mi.inch, S Komarowskiresponsibility for opinions or statelllents of factsComparing design and operating parameters on N removal and sludge settlingexpressed by conrribmors or advertisers. Editorials do n ot n ecessarily represent official AW A policy. Advertisements are included as an infonnation service co readers a nd arc reviewed before publication toensure relevance to the water environment and objectives of A WA. All material in Water is copyright and sho uld not be reproduced wholly or in part w ithout the written permission of the General Edito r.ENVIRONMENT 70 ·, LEGIONELLA TESTING IN COOLING TOWERS:BUSINESS ·, WATER MARKET POLICIES: CURRENT ISSUES, FUTURE DIRECTIONS: 74 H Bjornlund, J McKay. A lawyer's view on an effective policy frameworkSubscriptions vVnrer is sent to all AW A members eight times a year. It is also available via subscription.79 80Visit the Australian Wat4tr soclatlonR Ben th a mClosing the gate when the horse has bolted?HOME PAGEand access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of Information atMEMBERSHIP MEETINGSOUR COVER: Tire Co11tract R esearclr Cro11p of tire Ceutrefor Water Researclr i11 tire U11iversity of Westen, A11stmlia pro11ides tools a11d services bot/, 1vitlri11 A11stralia a11d overseas. Professor )o('s bnberger's expertise /1as bee11 recog11ised i11tematio11ally, a11d Ire lras oversee,, projects m11gi11g from s/1al/0111 rnb-tropical resel'lloirs to glacial lakes. Photo of a lake i11 tire A ndes by Jaimie Plaz a Van Roon of AUSCAPE.FROMTHEPRESIDENTA NAME BY ANY OTHER NAME ... I am moving swiftly to the grand status of Immediate Past President. Before reach ing the position of 'feather duster') l wane to use my lase column to address som e philosophical issues o f importance co the water industry.What's in a Name? 'Sewage trea t ment' h as become 'wastewater treatment' and is well on its way to becoming 'wastewater management'. 'Sludge' is now 'biosolids'; 'cffiuenc' is now 'reclaimed water'. T hese changes in names amount to a softening of old, rather pejorative terms, to sh ift the perceptio n of our industry to one of broad water management. A hobby ho rse of mine is worki ng to get the p ublic's perception ch anged , so renaming things may sm ack of euphem isms to many practitioners. H owever, the fuct is that people's impressio ns are coloured by words . Som e words si m ply have load ed connotations for most people - if those connotations are bad, then cve1ything associated with those words w ilJ be tainted in some way. Long traditions in sanitary engineering (which has now become 'environ mental engineering') threw up arcane words for water at each poin t in the cyc le , creating stereotypes, and th ereby denying the real ity that all w ater is in the sa me cycle. The water in dustry m ust make an effort to come up with clear, positive terms to describe water and the byp roducts of working w ith it. AW A has a most important rok co play in educating the comm un ity, b ut so does everyo ne working in our ind ustry. Standards and Quality versus Cost I sec the water industry, governmen ts and com mun ity as being o n the horns of a di lemma when it comes to standards of service, quality and associated costs. l have no doubts that we will continue to have everincreasing qual ity and standard s of service requirements . H owever, it m ust be recognized that there are substantial costs, both capita l and operating, associated with these. If we look to w hat is happening internationally, the decision by the USEPA to increase arsenic stand ards w ill result in a whole new treatment regime and multi-biUion doUar coses. And chis affects a relatively smalJ proportion of the USA water industry. Closer to home , the Victorian government's review of t he regulatory fra m ework for d rinkin g water quality is an adm irable exercise. H owever, l was nervous w hen the Minister for Environment and Conservation, Sheryl Garbutt, said in her announcement of the review at AWA's Victorian Branch dinner last August that the improvem ents could be made at littl e add iti onal cost. l don't believe th is wi ll be the case. H igher level treatment com es at a cost; higher quality managemen t also comes at a cost. T he water industry needs to make 2WATER MARCH 2001To remedy that situation, we conducted a small , qualitative survey among a ran ge of difrerent CEOs, fro m the very largest to some much sma ller organisations. We d iscovered, first of all, that we tend to hide our light u nder a bushel - several good th ings we do were unknown to many of chem, for instance, the (t hen) Su mm er School, now to be run as the Water Ind ustry Short Course. Although participants have always fo und it very valuab le, their ch iefs clearly have not had the m essage. Contrarily, the Mt Eliza course was well known and appreciated, so its place is recogn ised. Tra ining and professio nal develo p ment was seen by several CEO s as bei ng a key area fo r us to be mo re active. T he other concept receivin g strong suppo rt was the idea o f convening C EO- to-CEO foru ms, w here they could meet w ith peers and d iscuss issues o f co m mon interest. My tha n ks to t hose C E O's who cont1ibuccd - if you feel aggrieved at not being approached please contact me. l am sure we will foUow up. I will have the charge of introducin g actio ns in response to these valuable contributions over the next few months After all, there has to be some thi ng for a 'feather duster' to do.Allen Galeth is point q uite clea rly - we cannot contin ue to have ever- increasing standards w ith out having the in come to m atch. Otherwise we risk a situation similar to Wa lkertown in Ontario where corners were cut while ostensibly complying with regu lations, with d isastrous results. T his gives me the chance to promote another hobb y horse of m ine . R.ather tha n having to treat all of our water supplies to potable standards, why not consider treating only the small quantity required for drin king Alleu Gale standard to the best possible and deliver in bottles' We can then take the pressure o ff the 98 percen t that docs WATER & ENVIRONMENT not need to be of such high qual ity. Bottled water is here to stay w hy not join the fray? No doubt someo ne has already studied the MIKE Net - t he professional engineering software economics - l wou ld package fo r the simulation of flows, pressure love to hear from you if you have. distribution and water quality of pressurised waterD!j~Leaders in Water and Wastewater Network Analysis Software:CEO Survey Something we should have done long ago is canvass the views of the CEOs of water organisat ions. AW A came in to being in 1962 thanks main ly to the efforts of some committed CEOs, and was saved from possible collapse in the 1970s by the concerted efforts of more CEOs. We have, in practice, become much more inclusive of people at all levels now, whic h is excellen t, but it means we have lost touch with some CEOs.distribu tion systems. Industry standard EPANET engine, GIS and ODBC lin kages. SCADA interfaces, opt imisation and design modu les.MOUSE - the integrated modelling packa ge for Urban Drainage Et Sewer Systems. Wet weather and dry weather flo w generation, ·~.water quali ty, linkages to rece iving water model s for load -based assessments. ······--· .......... Real-time control and ,,·, opt imisation modules. •,,Free demo - download from our web site. Phone: +61 2 4334 6621 E-mail: software@dhiaust.com Web: www.dhiaust.com1Li;A revolutionary stormwater quality system has arrived in Australia. Called StormFilter™, this advanced filtration system sets new standards in the removal of pollutants. StormFilter™ restores lifestyle benefits to . ........ . communities whose local aquatic ecology is being choked by algal blooms, gross pollutants and sedimentation. StormFilter™ is compact and perfect for sites with limited land area. It's economical and easy to maintain. Best of all you get a real partner. lngal Civil Products will help you do the job right the first time. StormFilter™ is the clear choice.For further information call 1800 803 795 or visit www.ingalcivil.com.auINGAL CIVIL PRODUCTS A Division of Industrial Galvanizers Corporation pty. Ltd .StormFilter™is licensed exclusively throughout Australia and New Zealand to lngal Civil Products by Stormwater Management Inc, the world's leading provider of stormwater treatment solutions.CENTREFORWATERRESEARCHLake Kinneret, Israel: A Decision Support System for Water Quality G Gal and T Zoharyof the volume of the lake. Over the last few years Israel, and the region, is o nce Lake Kinneret, known also as the Sea again facing an extended period of of Galilee, typically recognized for it's drought, and consequentially the lake is great historical and religious value is also currently at its lowest level on reco rd. of great significance to modem day Israel. Si n ce initiat ion of a r o ut ine The lake is a m ed ium size, monitori ng program in 1969, the monomictic fr eshwater lake (max lake has been known to exhibit a Lake Level depth: 43 m; mean depth: 25 m , regular spting bloom of the thecate -208 . -----~ surface area - 170 km2 ) in the dinoflagellate Peridin/11111 gatunense . north of Israel. It stratifies in -209 Nygaard (thereafter Peridini,.,m) . March-April and turns over in Phytoplankton biomass is usually -210 Decemb er-January. Within 3-6 maximal (- 200 g we t weight m J weeks of thermal stratification, the 2) in spring (March- May) and ~ -211 hypolimnion turns anaerobic. In decreases abruptly later in Maythe mid-1960's, Israel constructed -212 ea rly June, correspo nding to a complex system. of channels and development and decline of the -213 pipelines, known as the National Peridi11i11n1 spri ng bloom. Berman Water Carrier (NWC) to convey -214 +--~ - ~ - ~ - ~ - - ~ -~ j et al. (1995) and Yacobi and water from the lake to the central 1/ 1/86 1/1/88 1/1190 111/92 1/1194 1/1196 1/1198 1/1100 Po llingher (1993), suggested that Year an d southern regions of the alga l population composition and country . Since then, the lake has Figure 1. Plot of the water level in Lake Kinneret for seasonal succession had vari ed provided a major portion oflsrael's the period 1986-1999 little in a 25-year perio d up until drinking water rapidly approaching 1993. Since then however, changes approximately 50%. Additionally, have occurred resulting in the first water from the lake is provided to bloom of the nitroge n-fixing th e Palestinian Authority and cya nobacterium A p/1aniz ome11on Jo rda n as part or the recent ova lispori11n in sum.m er 1994 Middle-East peace agreements. foll owed in winter 1995 by a The lake, th e only natural fresh29 furth er cyanobacterial bloom water lake in Israel, also provides 21 consisting of J\1icrocystis aeruginosa, fis heries and recreational related 25 and lack of the Peridinium spring revenue . 23 blooms in 1996 and 1997 (Berman 21 Lake level is regulated through et al. 1998, Nishri et al. 1998) and the pumping to the N WC and again in 2000 (Zohary, unpub11 through regulating the opening of lished data) . Th is interruption to 15 the outlet to the J ordan River o n the regular sequence of succession 303 313 .12.? 2Y.1 253 the southern side of the lake. Since Time (Julian Day) and its associated effects on the the early 1990's there has been an chemi cal composition of th e water increase of approximately 20% in Figure 2. High-resolution temperature data collected column are clea rly cause for Israel's population . This significant by 20 thermistors linked to the LDS in Lake Kinneret. conce rn and in dicate a need to Water temperature is sampled every 10 min. The data increase in the demand fo r water, understand the processes that may is for the period 30 Sep. through to 20 Nov. 2000 in addition to an erratic precipihave led to the disruption. and clea rly demonstrates progressive cooling of the tation regim e ov e r th e co rresponding period has lead to water columnIntroduction30WATER MARCH 2001large fluctuations in lake level (Fig. 1) . An extended period of low rainfall resulted in low lake levels in 1989, 1990 and aga in in 199 1. T he win ter of199 11992 w as one of the wettest on record resulting in the replacement of a quarterCENTRE60BA CEDIrI40.0E:3z... -~30Q).,;: !ti...J,o 100··-· ... 183)655'873018)3 65S'8730n ~Ol 10EcQ)8Ol >,X6Q)•0 "O> 0Cl) Cl)i520Days from Jan 1999 Figure 3. Upper panel: Lake Number computed from weekly temperature profiles at Sta. A and winds recorded at the KLL meteorological station (1999) and at the LDS (2000) for Jan 1999 - June 2000. The critical value of LN=2 is indicated. Lower panel: the resulting model prediction(·) vs. field data(•) for dissolved oxygen (DO) at 30m depth at Sta. A. Points A through to G indicate: A, E · start of main mixing period; B - brief mixing event; C, F - start of period dominated by stratification; D, G · hypolimnion depleted of DO.Project Objectives In 1999, the Israeli Water Commissioner approved a mu ltiyear collaborative project between the Y. Alon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory (KLL) in Israel and the Centre fo r Water Research at the University of Western of Australia (CWR) to produce a scientifically-based, operational decision-support system for the management of the water quality in Lake Kinneret. The system is to be based on a combination oflong-term (years) and short-term (days) hydrodynamic simulation models, DYRESM and ELCOM. In addition, an ecological model, CAEDYM, is to be used to simulate the biochemical processes in the lake. The 9-month feasibility phase of the project was recently concluded successfully leading to the fi nal approval of th e US$l.7M 3.5 yr primary phase of the project. The m ain objectives of phase 1 were the calibration and validation of DYRESM- CAED0YM based on the existing knowledge of the lake ecosystem and the available data followed by sim ulation of various management scenarios, e.g increased pumping from the lake and thus lowering of the lake level.Simulating the lake ecosystem As part of the feasibility phase of the project, a lake diagnostic system (LDS) developed at CWR was installed at a centrally located point in the lake. The LDS comprises of well-anchored station main frame with an antenna, solar panels, a wind anemometer with a wind direction sensor all above water. Below 32WATER MARCH 2001RESEARCHWATERFsoQ)FORthe water surface a chain of 20 thermistors and water sealed canister with a data logger, batteries, and modem. The system is programmed to log every 10 min. Data is downloaded on shore typically every one to two weeks and provides continuous data on the thermal structure of the water column (Fig. 2) The combination of the wind forcing data and the thermal structure allows the calculation of the lake number (LN). In simple terms, LN is the ratio o f the stabilizing moment of the stratification divided by the destabilizing influence of the wind (Imberger 1994, Robertson and In1berger 1994). For LN less than a critical value (2.0 in Lake Kinneret), th e wind destabilizing forces are such as to cause active mixing within the lake . B y contrast, for LN larger than the critical value, w ind forces are only sufficient to mix the near su rface layers and , in general, do not impact on the deeper parts of the water body and do not permanently disrupt the parent thermocline. Based on calibration of a simpl e sta tistical model, using historical data , it is possible to estimate the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water as a function ofLN (Fig. 3). It is then possible to apply the model to the curren t w ind and temperature conditions and predict the DO concentration in the lake. Large deviations would indicate that th e system is undergoing changes and requires further investigation. Simulations of the hydrodynamic and ecological processes were conducted using DYRESM as the hydrodynamic driver for CAEDYM . The ecological model, CAEDYM is a complex model simulating the main ecosystem processes occurring the lake. The success of the model is highly dependent on extensive knowledge of the numerous parameter values and process ratesu35r= 0.98~~,30:3~~ 25 E Q)•••.;; 20 ~!ti115 en10 101530 20 25 Observed temperature (°C )3516 r=0.90..pCl•12 § 0Cl-08~(J'o!!!Cl.4•••• ••• • • ••••ose-- •- -~ - - - -.--- ----r---- ---! 048 12 1 Observed DO (mg L" )16Fig. 4 Plots of observed and predicted mean monthly temperatures (upper panel) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the upper and lower 10 m of the water column . Symbols represent predicted values and the solid lines represent a 1:1 ratio. The correlat ion coefficie nt value between the observed and predicted va lues is provided.CENTREcoeffi cients. As ma ny of th e param eter va lu es we r e u n k nown th
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