Water Journal January - February 1999

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CDS Technologies leads the fiel stormwater pollution control traps capture the full range of water-borne materials, from sediments to cigarette butts and fast food…
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CDS Technologies leads the fiel stormwater pollution control traps capture the full range of water-borne materials, from sediments to cigarette butts and fast food packaging. In 1998 alone this gold medal performance has been recognised with prestigious industry awards including:~Banksia Environmental Award~Australian Technology Award~ NSW Case Earth Award Thi s performance is a lso the reason our Continuous Deflective Separation units are the first choice of local councils, developers and water authorities across Australia . Winners a t:~The future Olympic Games site at Homebush~The Albert Park Grand Prix circuit~ The Port Melbourne Docklands redevelopment Test results from independently assessed performance trials on some of the 140 CDS installations are available on request. Email us on: info@cdstech.com.au or visit our web site at: http// www.cdstech.com.au for more information on our winning solutions to water pollution . Australia -VIC/TAS/ SA NSWQLD New Zealand -phone03 02 07 075977 0305 9807 7477 3369 365 1 843 8008\l\\\\\6e~DS TECHNOLOGIESThe solution to water pollutionwaterVolume 26 No 1 January/February 1999 Journal Australian Water & Wastewater AssociationEditorial Board F R Bishop, Chairman B N Anderson, D Deere, P Draayers, W J D ulfer, GA Holder, M Muntisov, P Nadebaum, J D Parker, M Pascoe, A J Priestley, J Rissman, F R oddick, E A Swinton 'l. Water is a refereed journal. T his symbol indicates that a paper has been refereed.CONTENTS From the Federal President .................... .. ...... .. ........ ........ ........... ..... ............. 2 From the Executive Director ................................................ ........ ..... ............. 4 MYPOINTOFVIEWGeneral EditorAustralian Technology for A Cleaner World .... .... ..... .. ................... .. .... .. ....... 3Margaret Metz, email: 1mnetz@awwa.asn.au AWWA Federal Office (see postal address below)I Kiernan AO WATERFeatures Editor EA (Bob) Swinton 4 Pleasant View Cres, Wheelers Hill Vic 3150 T eJ/Fax (03) 9560 4752 Email: swintonb@c031.aone.net.auEA (Bob) SwintonBranch CorrespondentsB Moulds, D How esACT - Ian Bergman Tel (02) 6230 1039 Fax (02) 6230 6265 New South Wales - Leonie Huxedurp Tel (02) 9895 5927 Fax (02) 9895 5967 Northern Territory - Mike Lawton Tel (08) 8924 6411 Fax (08) 8924 6410 Queensland - Tom Belgrove T el (07) 3810 7967 Fax (07) 3810 7964 South Australia - Angela Colliver Tel (08) 8227 111 1 Fax (08) 8227 1100 Tasmania - Ed Kleywegt Tel (03) 6238 2841 Fax (036) 234 7109 Victoria - Mike Muntisov T el (03) 9278 2200 Fax (03) 9600 1300 Western Austtalia - Jane Oliver T el (08) 9380 7454 Fax (08) 9388 1908Advertising & Administration AWW A Federal Office PO Box 388, Artann on NSW 1570 Level 2, 44 Hampden R oad, Artarmon Tel (02) 9413 1288 Fax (02) 941 3 1047 Email: info@awwa.asn.au Advertising: Angela Makris Graphic Design: Elizabeth Wane1·Water (ISSN 0310 · 0367)is published six times per year: January, March, May, July, September, N ovember byAustralian Water & Wastewater Association Inc ARBN 054 253 066MP\id......Cryptosporldlum... What Next? ... ............................. .... .. ................ ....... ........ 8 •, Lime Crystallisation for Softening Water and Reducing Salinity ....... 11 WASTE MANAGEMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL CRCWMPC Special Feature ...................... ... ........ .. ........ ........... ..... ........ .. ..... 15 The Professional Environmental Research Business: Will It Ever Pay? 16.D E J Garman Performance and Commercialisation of CRCWMPC Research ...... ......... . 18L Ridge Membrane Technology .. ........................ ..... ............................ .............. .... .... 20I Fergus Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse .... ... .... .. .. .. .. ... ....... .. ................... 22F H udman The Need to Improve Dewatering Technologies ............ ........ .. ................. 24S Miller Improved Biological Treatment Processes Through a Better Understanding of the Fundamentals .................... ...................................... 26J Keller Solid Waste Management .... ... ... ... ... .. .. ... ... .................. .... .. ....... .. ................. 28R Wainberg Contaminated Site Remediation and Hazardous Waste Treatment ....... 30R Wainberg Structure of Bacterial Assemblages: Measurement and Application to Process Control ................................................................... ... ...................... 31J Guan, R Amal, TD Waite Advanced Oxidation Processes and Potential Applications ............... .... 34A J Feitz, R Aplin , T D WaiteWaste Minimisation and Cleaner Production .......... .. ........ ........... .... ......... 36R WainbergFederal PresidentEducation, Training and Technology Transfer ....... ......... ............. ... ........... 37Greg CawstonJ NielsenExecutive DirectorWASTEWATERChris Davis Australian W ater & Wastewater Association (A WW A) assumes no responsibility for opinions or statements of facts eiqJressed by contributors or advertisers. Editorials do not necessarily represent official AWW A policy. Advertisements are included as an infonn ation service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance co the water environment and objectives of AWWA. All material in Water is copyright and should not be reproduced wholly or in part without the written permission of the General Editor.Subscriptions Water is sent to all members of AWW A as one of the privileges of membership. N on-members can obtain Water on subscription at an annual subscription rate of$50 (surface mail).·, The Wonder of Worms for Sludge Stabilisation ........... .. ........ .. ............. 38M Lotzof ENVIRONMENT Impact of Cotton-growing Pesticides on NSW Border Rivers ................... 43EA (Bob) Swinton BUSINESS ,. Fine-tuning Community Understanding of the Septic Tank ...... ......... ... 46B Ridder DEPARTMENTS From the Bottom of the Well ...... .......... .. ....................................................... 4 International Affiliates ............ ..... ............... ....... ........ .... ....... ...... ........ ... ....... 5 Letters to the Editors ........................................................................ .... ......... 7 Meetings ............................................ .......................... ............ ............. ... ..... . 48 OUR COVER: The use of vermiculture to stabilise sewage sludge has beenmooted for the past 50 yea rs. Now the Redland Shire Council in Brisbane is using very large- scale vermiculture to process 400 1113 of mixed sludge per week . Photo courtesy of Mike LotzofofVennitech Pty LimitedFROMTHEPRESIDENTSmart Enterprises: Training Is The Key If they want th eir organisations to run at peak pe rformance, Australian employers need to think seriously about training staff at all levels and on an ongoing basis. The Australian Federal Government has invested many millions of dollars to facilitate training people from entry level all the way up to top manageme nt. Smart e nterprises will jump in now, make use of the products and services that have been designed, improve the skills o f all their employees and at the same time e nhance the competitiveness of their organisations. The difficulty which we all face is that of making sense out of the complex, j argon-ridde n world of the training industry. The number of acronyms flying around at a training meeting would rival those in any hightech industry, so it can be very daunting for the uninitiated. Don't be put off though, because opportunities exist to put staff through training, the reby rai sing performance and satisfaction for everyone. To und erstand the way training works, it is important first of all to recognise that the re are two very separate and distinct training worldsthree if you include the school system. Vocational training is aimed at people afte r they leave sc hool and, nowadays, can be delivered partially in school too. It embraces the traditional trades, and includes diplomas. In the language of the new Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF-our first lapse into jargon!), this means AQF levels 2 to 6. The levels are not very well defin ed-they are like regions around the rungs of a ladder rather than the rungs the mselves. T ertiary training, mainly the province of universities, covers AQF levels 5 to 8, i.e. from diplomas and gradua te ce rtificates through to the research pinnacle, the PhD. There is a significant overlap at levels 5 and 6 , which are common to both systems, so it is possible to have a diploma offered in competition by both T AFE and a university. In contrast with historic practice, the aim of current training policies is to allow for 'articulation,' which m eans that anyone who reaches a certain level should be able to improve their skills and move up to almost any higher level. Learning should be continuous and the levels seamless. This is probably a slightly utopian goal, but it will be very beneficial fo r that proportion of the workforce which has the will and application to keep improving. 2WATER JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1999The emphasis in training now is on outputs rather than inputs; in other words, on demonstrated competencies as opposed to time spe nt learning some thing. The traditional, time-based apprenticeship is intended to be replaced by a 'new apprenticeship' in which the trainee ca n move at his or he r own pace, mixing on-the-job training with classroom. training. Prior learning will be recognised and muc h of the training can be done at work and not sitting in the actual classroom. To implement this new orde r in the world of training, the Federal Government, through the Australian National Training Authority (ANTAacronym number two), has pumped millions into designing training packages, or structures which set out the competencies required for specific jobs at specific levels, the curriculum structure to deliver th ose competencies and to a lesser extent the resources to support the training organisations which do the teac hing. Althou gh T AFEs are still a major part of the training system, private providers are playing an important role too. A strange schism exists between the so- called vocational training system and the tertiary education system. The n ew, competency-based philosophies have largely been ignored by universities, which continue to focus on inputsstructured courses in specific timesinstead of e mbracing competency concepts. Fortunately, there is some dialogue between these two training worlds, so all is not lost. In reality, of course, neither system is entirely pure in its concepts: the vocational trai ning system still has pockets of very inputbased structure, while competency does come into tertiary training. Wh y burden you with all this background on training? W ell, as Ispelled ou t at the start, training is what will build Australia's competitiveness, so we all need to get into it with a will. Otherwise, we'll be left behi nd in the global race. T o gain from training, we need to ensure that it is appropriate to our needs. T he best way to do that is to keep in touch with the relevant t raining advisory body: in water's case, the N atio nal Utilities and E lectrotechnology Industry Training Advisory Body (NUEITAB-the last acronym, I promise!). This body acts as a conduit for information abou t training trends as well as being our vehicle fo r ge tting our needs heard and attended to. The biggest current risk is that the machinery might grind out courses and structures w hich are not suited to the needs of the water industry. The only way for us to avoid tha t is to be actively involved in all training developments and to make our needs clearly known. Greg CaivstonNewAWWA Members ACT W Bond, F Bouckaert, P Heweston New South Wales M Bates, R Campbell, R Chadwick, M Chapman, P Dahour, H Ellner, A Flinder, K Ford, T Jones, J Keary, S Khan, J Macleod, M Muir, J Prineas, M Rixon , G Rossington, A Spinoulas, Ntsougranis, M Warnecke, G Watson, S West, J Willetts, W Yeomans Queensland T Banks, D Bergade, W Bootle, P Broomhall, C Chidlow, B Cowan, M Crosbie, S Hegedus, R Herd, C Hester, S Hunter, S Koy, P McDonald, B Omundson, S Power, D Robinson, J Swartz, P Tuominen Victoria C Algie, R Ball, M Bethel, T Carroll, D Cecil, A Eglitis, K Evans, N Fisher, B Fu lton, J Giannopou los, K Go, M Gore, M Hindle, G Hocking, M Kozicki, C Leitch , Z Mierzwa, A Ohlsen, N Orr, M Peril, D Pra nanto, D Saunders, P Staiford South Australia S Beaty, T Holland, R Regel , N Rhodes, R Scott-Murphy, D Stevens, V WhiteWestern Australia G Camkin, T Hodgkin, U Morgan, M MurrayTasmania P Davies, B Hodgson Northern Territory Colin BeardMYPOINTOF VIEWAustralian Technology for a Cleaner World I Kiernan AO Ian Kiernan AO i s Chairman of the Cooperative Research Centre for W aste Management and Pollution Control and Chairman ofth e Clean Up Australia and Clean Up the World programs. R ecently he was awarded the top United Nations environment award, the Saskawa Environment Prize. We ail want a cleaner environment. Just ask the 40 million people wh o participated in the Clean Up the World campaign across the globe this year. Both at home and overseas, waterand how we treat it-is increasingly at the top of everyone's agenda. C lean Up the World committees have focused year after year on cleaning up local wa terways , the life-blood of their communities. International commentators even suggest future global conflicts will b e fought over access to fresh and clean water. I believe that the basi c logic of p resen t- day water management is flawed, both from an economic and practical p erspective. We are fighting the natural wa te r cycle, pillaging the aquifers, interrupting natural flows, and polluting one of our most precious resources. But the days of discharging untreated eilluent into the ocean or rivers, while draining our rivers of precious flows, are nu mb ered. We must reuse o ur water. But how can we do this? It is w idely agreed that pollution is economic inefficiency. Industry knows that cleaning up its act will not only make it more efficient, but that i ts efforts in this critical area will lead to a cleaner environment. The future of the world is based on sustainable development, which means integrating best environme ntal practice with best industrial practice. There is w idespread agreement that research makes good sense. Environ mental research makes even be tter sense, as it provides excellent econornic opportunities for business and ensures a sustainable future for our planet. H ere in Australia , cooperative research with industry is the envy o f many other countries. The Cooperative R esearch Centre for Waste Manageand Pollution Control m ent (CR CWMPC) is at the forefront of world environmen tal research. O ver th e years of i ts ope ration the CRCWMP C has increased its profilewithin both industry and the public arena to cement the position of research culture in Australian society. But the C RCWMPC hasn't stopped there. It has trail-blazed new paths of internati onal linkages in Asia and E urope through an Environme nt Industry D evelopme n t Network (EID N). Already industry has invested m ore than $4.5 million in new initiatives sponsored by E ID N through government funding for development of the Australian environment industry. It is a heartening experience to be involved with an organisation such as the C R CWMPC, which is committed to providing tool s t hat w ill e nable industry to both manage the environm ent more wisely and generate new industries for Australia. T he CRCWMPC i s tackling the demanding issues of waste and pollution through a n umber of different ch annels. One of the most innovative of its projects is investigating the applications of very large- scale verrniculture (wonns) to convert sewage sludge and waste paper into an organic soil conditioner. An other involves discovering better bacteria to break down sewage in order to help improve the performance of sewage treatment works in Australia and abroad. Many of these ideas are based on very simple science and h ave the potential for widespread, cost-effective application. An example is a project that e ncourages the use of reed beds to remove pollutants from contaminated water. The improvement of the design of manufactured wetlands is anotherrelatively simple idea that provides a cheap and appropriate technology to remove pollutants and nutrients from wastewater. On the international fron t, th e CRCWMPC proj ect involved in developing a process to remove arsenic from drinking water cheaply and effectively is helping to solve a major international water-quality problem. So we see that the community is demanding bette r environments; the. government is legislating for better environments; and industry is responding. But there are still a few steps to go. The first of these is happening under the auspices of C lean Up Australia. Clean Up is implementing several high profile demonstration projects around the coun try with the aim of setting an example for industry and showing the ben efits that flow from a cleaner enviromn ent. T he CRCWMPC, C lean Up Australia and C lean Up the World all start with a philosophy of waste management w hich recognises that it is a strong partnership between industry, community and government which is going to improve the state of the world's environment. In Australia, C lean Up aims to provide these demonstration projects under the Clean Up Australia 2001 program. Already the first project is complete . The $2.2 million Wastewater Treatmen t and R euse Plant at Sydney's Taronga Zoo has elirn.i.nated a point source of pollution from Sydney H arbour, and reuses water around the Zoo. D emonstration projects like this w ill ultimately show t hat sound environmental management makes good economic sense. But it is not only the demonstration that has to be done. There has to be innovation and research. This is w here the goals of the CRCWMPC and C lean Up dovetail neatly together. It is gratifyi ng to see that the grass roots activities of C lean Up Australia combined w ith th e CRCWMPC's development of Australian technology for a cleaner world are actually going to make a difference. A nd that's good news for all of us, because it means that at this point in our history the prognosis for the health of ou r planet is looking extrem ely good. WATER JANUARY/ FEBRUARY 19993-FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTORGood Sports Needed It is interesting to note how the tide of competition ideology is impinging on the water industry. A few years ago every water enterp rise in Australia was owned and operated by e ithe r a statutory agency or a local government body. In the early 80s, a wave of 'reforms' began to sweep in , characterised by endless restructuring and the adoption of n ew buzz words for the way organi sations ope rated and what t hey aimed to achieve. Suddenly, the number of rings before a phone was answered was as important as producing good drinking water or minimising pollution. By the early nineties, a strong current was building, eddying around the whole country and throwing together ideas about competition, globalisation and private sector participation. Conventional wisdom among State governments produced some interesting positions, namely that only international companies had the credentials to operate systems which had been run by locals for the last hundred years or so, and that som e States would not contemplate having an agency fro m another State offering services. This was Australian parochialism at its amazing best. Of course, the truth is that we do have the ability to run water agencies effec tively, either on our own or in partnership with others so that we come up with an optimum result. But we can' t have blinkers on the world. There are innovative people from othe r countries who have learn
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