Water Journal January 2001

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'••o LESSONS FROM · THE 1998 SYDNEY WATER CRISIS JA RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO WATER QUALITY JDEVELOPMENTS IN CATCHMENT HYDROLOGYGrundfos is one of the world's leading manufacturers of pumps and pumping systems. Through the acquisition of Sarlin Pumps, the Grundfos Group is now able to provide complete solutions for pumping of sewage, raw water and industrial effluent. Grundfos Sarlin submersible pumps up to 600kW for flows up to 3500Usec.r A D I IIU DI I . .Dr. .., 1,1,,1 ... .- ..,.,, â&#x20AC;˘.- ...www.grundfos.com contact-au@grundfos.comVolume 28 No 1 January 2001 Jo u rna l of the Austral ia n Water Associat ionEditorial Board F R B ish o p , C h airmanB N Anderson, P Draayers, W J Dulfer, G Finlayson, GA Holder, M Kirk, Ll L1bza, M Munasov, N Orr, P Nadebaum, J D Parke r, M Pascoe, A J Priestley. J Rissman. F R.oddick, E A SwintonCONTENTS•,1 kVntcr is a refe reed journal. This symbol indicates that a paper has been refereed.Submissions Submissions should be made to E A (13ob) Swinton, Features Editor (see below for details).2FROM THE FEDERAL PRESIDENT: Regional Movement, Global StageManaging Editor3FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Waterwatch: ASynergistic OpportunityPet e r Stirling PO Box 84, Hampton Vic 3188 T cl (03) 9530 8900 Fax (03) 9530 89 I I4MY POINT OF VIEW: La urie Gleeso n, Gou lburn Valley Reg ion WaterFeatures Editor6INTERVIEW: Alla n Henderson, Sydney Water8INTERNATIONAL AFFILIATES: IAWQ Merges with AWA to form AIWA9CROSSCURRENT: Water News around the NationE A (B ob) Swinto n 4 Pleasant View C rcs, Wheelers Hill Vic 3150 Tel/ Fax (03) 9560 4752 E111ail: bswinton@bigpond.nct.auCrosscurrent Editor W (Bill) R ees PO Box 388, Artam,on, NSW 1570 T cl +61 2 941 3 1288 Fax: (02) 94 13 I 04716WATER RECYCLING AUSTRALIA 2000: Areport of the Adelaide conference J Ande rsonEmail: brees@awa.asn.auAWA Head OfficeFEATURES:PO Box 388, Artarmon, NSW 1570 T el +61 2 941 3 1288 Fax: (02) 94 13 I047CR( FOR CATCHMENT HYDROLOGY: The second part of a review of their various projectsE111ail: info@awa.asn.auWater Advertising & Production H all mark Editions PO l3ox 84, H ampton, Vic 3 I 88 Level I . 99 Bay Street, 13righ ton, Vic 3 186 Tel (03) 9530 8900 i=ax (03) 9530 8911 Email: hall111ark@halled 1t.co rn.au A d vertising co o rdinatio n : Fio n a Seco nd G ra phi c d esig n : M itz i Ma nn17The View from the Chair: J19Evolulion of Water Management: J Ti sd e ll20Sediment Movement in Forests: J23Slreamflow Forecasting: FLang rordC roke, P Hai rsineH S Chiew, TA McMa ho nWater (ISSN 0310 · 0367)2SSlream Rehabilitation:is publish ed in January, March, April, June, J u ly, September, October and l)cccrnbcr.28Postgraduate Education in the CR( CH: JAustralian Water Association IncDRINKING WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENTA B N 74 054 253 066Federal President Alle n G aleExecutive Director C hris D avisAWA~AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATIONAustralian Water Association (A WA) assumes no29tives of AW A. All material in IVnrcr is copyright andA RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH:LESSONS FROM THE 1998 SYDNEY WATER CRISIS: J L Clancy37THE SYDNEY CRISIS · AN ALTERNATIVE POINT OF VIEW: P Hawk ins Clancy and Hawkins argue the efficacy of monitoring of pathogens during the Sydney Crisis38·, GENOTYPES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: P Ha wk in s, P Swanson, u Mo rga n A report on further monitoring in Sydney using IFA and PCR43·, THE ROLE OF TOTAL COLIFORMS: G Rya n, R Bann ister,J O'Toole, D DeereA suggested matrix for management decisionsSubscriptions47MEMBERSHIPWater is sent to all AW A members eight times a year. It is also available via subscription.48MEETINGSAustralian Water HOME PAGE Association and access news, calendars, bookshop and over 100 pages of lnfonnatlon ats E Hrudey33sho uld no t be reproduced wholly o r in part without the written permission of the General Editor.Visit theFie nA Canadian puts forward his pragmatic viewresponsibility for opi nions o r statements o f fa cts expressed by contributors or advertisers. Editorials do not necessarily represent official AW A policy. Advertisements :lre included as an infonnarion service to readers and are reviewed before publication to ensure relevance to the water environment nnd obj1.:c-I Ru the 1fo rd, K Je rie, N MarshOUR COVER: The 111icrobiolo.izical 111011itori11g of dri11ki11g 111ater is by 110 means as precise as 111eas11re111eut of pl1ysico-chemical properties. illdicator organisms lia11e to be used as s1m·ogatesfor patlwgeuic bacteria, while csti111ates of protozoa ca11 only be performed by co11cmtrafio11 J,-0111 large vol11111es, tl1e11 idrnt{(ira tio11 1111der the microscope, 111ore a11 'art fo n11 ' tha11 a scie11ce. Main photo by Bria11 La bz a. C oliform colonies co urtesy of A WT Victoria.FROMTHEPRESIDENTREGIONAL MOVEMENT, GLOBAL STAGE A recent general m eetin g of members of the International W ater Assoc iation in Australia unanimously agreed that their loca l operatio ns w ould be n1.erged with AW A's. I was pleased to see that successful conclusion co a long negotiatio n with IW A; it is a noteworthy step along the path of col laboration that l identifi ed at the start of my term of office. As my term is shorter than most, thanks to o ur recent decision co convert to a new Constitution and a company structure, hitting milesto nes poses more of a challenge than usual. Another factor here is that AW A's Federal Co uncil, at its November 2000 strategic planning session , identifi ed internatio nal activities as a key area of acti vity to add value to m embers and for water in the region, so the merger vote was the first tangible outcome for that strategy area. Sin ce AW A is just one of many waterrelated o rgan isations and si nce globalisation is an irresistible force, a good working rela tionship with !WA is critical. We ha ve been active in o ur own, SE Asian region, hosting the AS PAC Conference in Sydney in 1998, for example. Many of our near neighbours, though, do not have have the long history of volunteer associations that we in h e rited from our ma inly European foreb ears. We are thus in a good positio n to share our expe ri ences and ideals ,vith colleagues in th e region, to foster the growth of associations like our own, as well as working w ith I WA. As we are numerically a sma ll co untry, our role is not perceived as domi nating anyo ne , so AW A is a low-threat partner. The first major challenge for us, in the new relationship with IWA, is co run the World W ater Congress in M elbou rne in 2002. W e decided recently to co mbin e that event with Enviro 2002, a joint venture with our local environment industry partners, WMAA, CASANZ and EBA (previously E MIAA) . Th e combination of IW A and Enviro w ill create one ve ry substantial event, having an overall environment flavour, but with a strong water thread runnin g through it. Apart from staging the big event next year, we also have plans to combine AW A's somewhat broad interest groups (eg reuse, drinking water, catchment management) with t he numerou s, b u t ve ry focused (eg pho s p h orus r e mov a l , river b asin management), spec ial interest groups that !WA has. I feel that our National Special Interest Groups offer an excellent vehicle for m embers to pursue their specifi c disciplines with co lleagues nationally, as an extra layer over/ under th e traditional, srate/ territorybased branch nexus. Combining fo rces with IWA's specialist groups w ill give the whole concept of align ing detailed interests new fo rce. One possi bility is for AW A co fac ilitate a 2WATER JANUARY 2001Allen Galeregional alignment of countries in SE Asia and perhaps the South Pacific. IW A has precedents for this so rt of arrangement in Africa, the Americas and North Asia fo r such groupings, so a joint activity amon g us and our convenient neighbours ho lds some promise. Apart from the bene fits of technology transfer and networking, the possible trade spin-om could be sig nifica nt. Within I WA, Australia is significant beyond what our small po pulation would suggest, and our membership is the fourth largest from any country. We also have leadership roles in several specialist gro ups, suc h as R ecycling, which is now chaired by John Anderson. Having o ur past President, Mark Pascoe, elected as the first C hairman of AIW A, the local !WA co mmittee, is a reflection of the commitment from bo th parties to this new relationship in Australia. T he bu ild- up to the !WA 2002 event w il l see strengthening tics between IW A and AWA. We already have common membership of aroun d 200 people, w ith potential to have another 200 or so take up the offer of a 10% discount on subscriptions fo r dual membership. The new Al WA committee enjoys a status roughly analogous to that o f a Branch and w ill have a seat on our Board. Apart fro m the main event in 2002, there are ochers in the pipelin e too : an Odours workshop in Marc h 2001, perhaps BNR4 immediately after the World W ater Congress, and an active role for Australians in a new, Integrated Urban Water Managem ent project being set up by IWA co- President, Piet Ode ndaal. Altogether, I think an exciting time is emerging for us all in working with IW A and I am comfortable that, w hen I step down in April , the process w ill be well in train. A llen Ga leAquaphemera The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) for early D ecember was +23. This indicates a probability that rainfall in the coming weeks is likely t o b e above a verage . Mor e ominously, the last tim e the SOI was at this level was in late 1973 and tbe floods of early 1974 w e re probably the most extensive in Australia this centu ry. T here is, of co u rse , no certain ty o f widespread flooding in 2001 but t h e SO I affo rds the trigger to comment on flooding in Australia, already in the news because of recent floo di ng i n N ew South Wales and lik ely t h e worst on rec ord in England. T he latter has lead to speculation that the widespread inundation was related to green house-induced climatic change . This is impossible to vali date scientifically but there are indications t h at t h e co ntinued r ise i n at m osp h e ri c g r ee n ho u se gas emissio ns m ay lead to increased flooding. To date, the only established facts of greenhouse climate change are the global, and n ear exponential, rise in greenho use gas c o nte nt of the atmosphere and the rise in globa l temperatures. The impa cts on rainfall at the sub-contin ental or regional scale are stilJ far from agre e d . But t h e re is an emerging consensus that w e m ay b e moving to a a period of increased rainfall intensity. That is even if rainfall amounts decrease that the rain will com e in sharp bursts that are condu cive to floodi ng. T his reflects basic physics in that the warmer the atmosphere, th e more moisture it can hold and, given the righ t co nditions, the more intensive w ill b e the rainfall. T hus w e could su rmise t hat the probability of occurrence of rainfall in a given time p e riod for Da rwin may b e tra nsferre d to Brisbane and th e current figures for Brisbane to Sydney and so on ever south. E ngineers concerned w ith the design of urban drainage will appreciate the significance of t his. There are im portant impli cations for floodplain management. T he current widely used ' l in 100 year' desig n flood could c hange quite markedly . The i mplications fo r dam design and safety are even more alarming. A happy New Y ear to all readers of Aquaphem era and watch th e sor and see if it leads to widespread flooding in early 2001 ! Ding le Smith.CATCHMENTT he first part of this featu re was pub lished in the November/Decem ber issue of ' vVatcr', with six articles and with the follow ing six articles held over to th is issue. T hi: C l"tC fo r Catchment H ydro logy is a cooperative vt: nture, involving seventeen research and in d ustry organisations in public good research. In 2000, after tht: in itial six years of operation, tht: C R.C fo r Catchment H ydrology applied for a second round of fundin g based o n a complete recasti ng of its aims. T he following articles arc derived from work done in the previous C R C but are co mple tely relevant to the new aims of assessingHYDROLOGYthe impact of land and water m anagem ent decisio ns o n a w ho le-of-catchm en t scale.CRC for Catchment Hy drology Cen tre Office Virgin ia Verrelli C R C fo r Catchment Hydrology Department of Civi l E ngineering PO BOX 60, Monash Un iversity 3800 Tel (03) 9905 2704 Fax (03) 9905 5033 emai l virgi n ia. verrclli@eng.monash.edu.au cATCHM1N rHY 0 10,0GvThe View From The Chair J Langford Predictive Tool-boxes for Catchment ManagementWe have learnt th e hard way chat Australia's catchments are different from chose in Europe and Am erica. To date, th e ability to m easure wholeof-catchment hydrologica l health, and provide tools for reso urce managers to assess the future impact of land and water use decisions, has remained a crucial challenge fo r Australian hydrologists . T he Cooperati ve R esearch Ce ntre fo r Catchment H ydrology (C R.C C H ) has taken up th is challenge . Its who le-ofcatchment approach has evo lved from vvork conducted in the first C R C CH,which showed that large-scale hydrologi c models cou ld be developed to provide region-appropriate water manage ment solutions. T he successful bid for a new Ce ntre fo cused o n producing large-sca le predictive models for catchments based on a more holisti c approach, w hich is a fund amenta l shift in emphasis fr om researchi ng hydro logical processes to predicting catchm ent behaviour. Th ere has also bee1, a m ove from achieving resea rch 'o utcomes' to 'catchment and community impacts' . T he premise fo r the new Centre is that, given the co mpl ex ity of ca tchment uses and issues, any model that accuratelypredicts hydrological behaviour in catchments must include th e impacts o f climate va ri ability, vegetation, soil and water manage m ent in an integrated package. The Importance of Focus CatchmentsAn inn ovative way o f ac hi ev ing integration of the research programs and prediction of land-use changes on a large scale is the use of fo cus catchm ents. T he foc us catchments bring together research and commu ni ty inpu t s, re so u r ce managem ent issues and industry needs over a large complex catchment. Th e C R C CH parties have selected WATER JANUARY 200117CATCHMENTfi ve such foc us ca tchments. T hey are Brisban e Ri ver, Q ld; Fitzroy Ri ve r, Qld ; G ou l b u rn - Brok e n Ri ve r , Vi c; M urru mbidgee R iver, NSW , and Yarra R iver, Vic. Eac h catchm ent involves generi c wa ter manage m ent issues that apply to seve ral ca tchments in Australia. A coordinato r has bee n chose n fo r eac h of the foc us ca tchm ents to bring together the research programs and the ac ti vities of the industry partners and th e commun ity. Each coo rdinator ga thers info rmation on issues related to the CR C C H 's wo rk, and ac ts as a fa cilitato r, com mu nica ting w ith stakehold rs and resea rchers. The Brisbane River CatchmentA good working exa mp le of the co mplexity of issues and th e foc us catchment approac h is the sub- tro pical Brisbane Ri ver Catchment. This catchment is large , 13,500 km 2 in area, and its 50 maj o r creeks are contained by 850 kms of rive r and lakeHYDROLOGYbanks. On ly 14% of the ca tchment remains uncl ea red; 5% of the Bay's ca tc h m e nt area is u rb an i ed . Th e catchment supports the largest population in Q ueensland , and the pop ulatio n gro w th is rapid at abo ut 2 .8% a yea r. Key wa terway issues are local and regio nal flooding, and sediment loads and turbidity flo wing thro ugh th e Brisbane Ri ve r into M oreton Bay from urban storm wa ter and ru ral land uses . T here are also related sporadic algal blooms in the wes tern part of the bay, litter and weeds, concerns abo ut the ecological h ealth of freshw ater wa terways and a need to ensure a lo ng-term sa fe wa ter supply. C R C C H Parties , including the Brisbane C ity Council, are having significant input into developing th e South East Qu eensland R egio nal Wa ter Quality M anagem ent Stra tegy (SEQR WQMS), designed to protect all wa ters in the catc hm ent and M o reto n B ay . Th e strategy calls fo r cost-effecti ve solu tions to the co n1.pl ex and expensive issue ofSuper solutions f0r the water industry<:f WSAA, is also Chaimia11 <:f the C R. C C H.m anaging urban sto rmwa ter pollutio n. T he proj ect involves researchers from several of the C R C C H's Programs Predictin g Catchment Behavio ur, U rban Sto rmwa ter Q uality, Land- use Impact on R ive rs and Ri ve r R estoratio n . C R C C H research aims to provide Qu eensland m anageme nt authorities with the abili ty to predict and evaluate land m an ageme nt initi ati ves across th e Bri sbane Ri ve r Ca tch m e nt. T h ese pr e dic ti ve too ls w ill supp o rt t h e SE QRWQMS. Education and Training•top level hassle free service•excellent invest ment perfor manceT he n ew Ce ntre has lin ked the edu ca tio n and training programs of the Coastal Zone C R C Coastal Zone with the CR C Catchm ent H ydrology with the appointment of a j oint Program Leade r (P rofesso r J o hn Fi e n of G ri ffi t h U nive rsity, Qu ee nsland). The program will produ ce a new ca dre of indu stryrea dy yo ung professio nals, well-versed in the science and the practi cal issues facing Australia in land and wa ter manage ment.•competitive fees (no comm issions)The New CRC CH•defined benefit & accumulat ion divisions•a fu ll range of products and servicesSo w hat sets this CR C C H apart fro m th e first? It is the commitment o f a large number of playe rs together with th e intense planning of research and adoption programs. It is also the shift in emphasis from hydrological processes to predi cting ca tchment behavio ur on a large scale. T he foc us ca tchments a!e th e testing gro und bringing to ge ther the research and mana gem ent. It is the fi rst initiative of its kin d o n such a scale in Australia and we are all bu oyed by its preliminary progress .Join many of Austra lia 's leading util ities already enjoyi ngCa ll Brian Towers on(03) 9248 5911equipsuper The national utilities superannuation fund 18]0/111 La11<~(<nd, th e Exerntive DirectorWATER JA NUARY 2 0 01CATCHMENTHYDROLOGYThe Evolution of Water Management in Australia J Tisdell Water trading began in the early 1990's, followi n g COAG's nati ona l co111pe tition and social po licies, with the expectation that trade would redistribute wate r to more efficient uses, an d th e m arket is still evolving w ith exp erience . H owever, the question re m ains w hether water trading is leading to an efficien t and equi table distributio n of wa ter. As well as env ironmenta l outcomes, th ere are economic impacts on regional towns and commu nities. The C R C C H 's Sustainable Water Allocation Program research aims co provide wa te r auth o rities and govern m e nts w ith insig hts co assist th e m w ith long- term strategic plann in g, and develop111cnt of tradin g rules and procedures which take into account not just h yd rological and system constraints, but also the soc ial and regio nal economi c conseq ue nces of the ir decisions. So far, outcomes of water trading have been simulated using o pti111 isation 111ode ls, but the CRC C H research methodology w ill use actu al m arket data and traders to describe and simul ate o utcom es of trade. To date th ere has been little research work pe rformed on such po licy evaluation in Australia. According to M ulliga n and Pig ra m ("1989) and Watson (1990) for m ost of th e first t\N0 hundred yea rs of European settle m ent, water resou rce poli c ies , like tho se re lating to other reso urces, we re focu ssed o n ex plo itation co prom ote econom ic and demographic grow t h, and e m ployment ge nerati o n. The role of th e water auth
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