The Washington Post National Weekly - July 7, 2019

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SUNDAY, JULY 7, 2019.IN COLLABORATION WITHABCDE NATIONAL WEEKLYHow did NASA put men on the moon 50 years ago? One harrowing step at a time. PAGE 122 SUNDAY, JULY …
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SUNDAY, JULY 7, 2019.IN COLLABORATION WITHABCDE NATIONAL WEEKLYHow did NASA put men on the moon 50 years ago? One harrowing step at a time. PAGE 122 SUNDAY, JULY  7,  2019SUNDAY, July, 7, 2019 3KLMNO WEEKLYPOLITICSBiden leads in poll after debate D AN B ALZ AND S COTT C LEMENTWarren and Harris — are chosen by at least 20 percent as the first or second choice of Democrats and Democratic-leaning indepenormer vice president Joe Biden leads dents. his Democratic rivals in the campaign No other candidate tops 10 percent when to win the party’s presidential nominacombining first and second choices. Buttigieg tion, continuing to attract broad supcomes closest, with a combined 9 percent. port despite coming under sharp attack from Thirteen candidates register at 2 percent or Sen. Kamala D. Harris (Calif.) and others in the lower in the combined first and second choices. June debate in Miami, according to a WashingThe event in Miami was the first time ton Post-ABC News survey. Americans could see nearly the entire DemoDemocrats judge Harris as the standout cratic field onstage together, albeit in an apperformer among the 20 candidates who depearance split over two nights. Harbated over two nights, but she ranks ris’s attack on Biden over his past behind Biden and Sen. Bernie Sanders position on school busing and his (Vt.) in preferences for a nominee to comments about working in the Senchallenge President Trump in the ate with segregationist senators pro2020 general election. vided the most electric moment of Biden is the leader among Demoeither night and gave the campaign of crats in two separate measures, the the senator from California a jolt of first when those surveyed were asked energy in the aftermath. to volunteer the name of a candidate The Post-ABC poll underscores they would support at this point as what has been the case from the time well as in a more traditional question Biden entered the race in April: While that identifies the list of those running he is the leader in the Democratic and asks respondents to select from MIKE SEGAR/REUTERS field, he is by no means a commandamong them. The former vice presiing front-runner. dent’s position is buoyed by percep- Former vice president Joe Biden and Sen. Kamala D. Harris Health care stands out as a key issue tions that he is the most electable debate racial issues as Sen. Bernie Sanders listens during the for Democrats, with 29 percent saying Democrat in a general election and by second night of the Democratic debate June 27. it is one of the most important factors his support among African American in their 2020 general election vote. But climate of the immigration issue in both debates. and older Democrats. change (25 percent), immigration (24 percent) When second-choice preferences are added to When Democrats and Democratic-leaning and gun violence (23 percent) also rank high. first-choice selections, Biden remains atop the independents are asked to identify their preThis Washington Post-ABC News poll was field, with 50 percent of Democrats saying he is ferred candidate, without being prompted with conducted by telephone from June 28 through either their first or second choice. Sanders stands a list of names, 21 percent cite Biden, a gain of July 1 among a random national sample of at 40 percent in the combined ranking, followed eight points since late April. Sanders runs sec1,008 adults, with 65 percent reached on cellby Warren at 25 percent and Harris at 24 percent. ond at 13 percent, up four points since April. phones and 35 percent on landlines. The marThe Post-ABC survey shows a clear stratificaHarris and Sen. Elizabeth Warren (Mass.) are gin of sampling error among the sample of 460 tion of the large Democratic field, based on a tied at 7 percent, both up three points. Democrats and Democratic-leaning indepencombination of first and second choices. In that Among the others, only South Bend, Ind., dents is plus or minus 5.5 percentage points. n grouping, four candidates — Biden, Sanders, Mayor Pete Buttigieg, named by 3 percent, getsBYFKLMNO WEEKLYabove 1 percent in this ranking. Meanwhile, 41 percent of Democrats did not volunteer a preferred candidate, down from 54 percent in April. When the names of 22 Democrats running for the nomination are presented, Biden is slightly favored at 29 percent to Sanders’s 23 percent. Harris and Warren are again tied, at 11 percent. Buttigieg runs fifth, with 4 percent, and is tied with former housing secretary Julián Castro, who staked out a position calling for decriminalization of the border that framed the discussionThis publication was prepared by editors at The Washington Post for printing and distribution by our partner publications across the country. All articles and columns have previously appeared in The Post or on washingtonpost.com and have been edited to fit this format. For questions or comments regarding content, please e-mail weekly@washpost.com. If you have a question about printing quality, wish to subscribe, or would like to place a hold on delivery, please contact your local newspaper’s circulation department. © 2019 The Washington Post / Year 5, No. 39CONTENTS POLITICS THE NATION THE WORLD COVER STORY SPORTS BOOKS OPINION FIVE MYTHS4 8 10 12 16 18 20 23ON THE COVER Fifty images taken during the Apollo 11 mission show the astronauts’ journey from Earth’s orbit to the moon and back. Photos by NASASUNDAY, JULY  7,  20193SUNDAY, July, 7, 2019 20KLMNO WEEKLYOPINIONSTrump’s Korea gamble: Now what? DAVID IGNATIUS is a columnist for The Washington Post and has also written eight spy novels.In dealing with North Korea’s Chairman Kim Jong Un, President Trump should remember that he is a snake handler, not a snake charmer. (The same  advice applies to Kim, but we’ll leave that to pundits in Pyongyang.) ¶ The baseline: Kim is a modernizing  autocrat who believes his survival will be enhanced by the  economic development he wants, in addition to the  nuclear weapons he has. If he has decided to resume  negotiations, it’s to remove sanctions, put his economy in  overdrive and, maybe, keep some of his nuclear arsenal.  It’s not because he has a “great relationship” with Trump,  as the president’s comments have suggested, but because  he’s a rational, if cocky, dictator. This caution doesn’t diminish the importance of what Trump achieved this past Sunday in stage-managing his reality-diplomacy show at the Korean demilitarized zone. This was a high-risk photo opportunity, but when Trump became the first sitting U.S. president to step into North Korea, he reopened a path to denuclearization and normalization of relations. Trump’s many bad qualities shouldn’t blind us to this good achievement. He successfully played a hunch that Kim wanted to resume talks. The fact that this achievement comes wrapped in Trump’s gaudy, dictator-friendly bunting doesn’t diminish its value. The question is whether this is a real turn toward peace and stability in Asia, as opposed to a survival gambit for Kim and a reelection campaign stunt for Trump. “The idea of a Trump meeting with Kim in the DMZ has been kicking around for some time,” noted Robert Carlin, a longtime CIA analyst on North Korea, in an email message Sunday. Carlinhad feared that it was “a diving catch, a Hail Mary pass, betting the farm,” but Trump made the gamble work. What were the precursors of this reopening? First, Kim apparently concluded he had erred at the Hanoi summit in February in expecting that he could get sanctions relief without making any real concessions on denuclearization. He began walking back this mistake in May, “signaling the window was again open for engaging the U.S.,” said Carlin, a careful reader of the North Korean press. A clear public sign that Kim wanted to play ball again came in a June 4 Foreign Ministry statement reaffirming North Korea’s “will to cherish and implement in good faith” the denuclearization pledge Kim made at the Singapore summit in June 2018. The statement urged that “both sides give up their unilateral demands and find a constructive solution.” A shadow play commenced: Kim sent Trump what the president called a “beautifulBRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGESPresident Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un talk before a meeting in the Korean demilitarized zone on June 30. Trump later became the first sitting U.S. president to step into North Korea.letter” last month, and Trump responded in kind. Stephen Biegun, the State Department’s special representative for North Korea, said June 19 at the Atlantic Council that the “door is wide open” for renewed negotiations and that the only big obstacle was the lack of an “agreed definition of what denuclearization is.” The State Department quietly announced June 24 that Biegun was traveling to Seoul. And then, on Saturday, came Trump’s seemingly off-the-wall tweet: “If Chairman Kim of North Korea sees this, I would meet him at the Border/DMZ just to shake his hand and say Hello(?)!” A day later, they were shaking hands and Trump was walking across the border. Here’s what to watch carefully in the weeks ahead. Since this diplomatic dance began, the question has been what specific, verifiable steps North Korea will take toward the declared goal of denuclearization. Kim tried to sidestep that in Hanoi by offering to dismantle one big nuclear facility at Yongbyon, which Trump rightly rejected because the United States knows there are other facilitiesoutside the boundary of this compound. Are those other facilities now on the table? Is the United States willing to consider a transitional “freeze” of Pyongyang’s activities? We’ll see. Trump, wisely, seems to have accepted that denuclearization won’t be an immediate disarmament but a gradual, monitored process. He said Sunday that “speed is not the object. We want to see if we can do a really comprehensive, good deal.” That’s the right goal. The personal factor in diplomacy is ephemeral but real. China may have been ready for an opening to America in 1972, but it took President Richard M. Nixon to go to Beijing. Egypt may have been primed for peace with Israel in 1978, but it took President Jimmy Carter to negotiate the Camp David Accords with Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin. Kim and Trump make an unattractive pair, in many respects. But if for their own reasons they’re ready to begin a serious denuclearization discussion, so much the better. n44SUNDAY, July, 2019 SUNDAY, JULY  7, 7,2019KLMNO WEEKLYPOLITICSDemocrats face growing pressure on racial issuesDANIEL ACKER/BLOOMBERG NEWSA heated Harris-Biden exchange resounds, but party wants to avoid losing centrists BY M ATT V ISER AND A NNIE L INSKEYAn impassioned argument over racism in America has boiled to the surface in an increasingly muddled Democratic presidential primary contest, triggered by an electrifying debate encounter that has reverberated across the campaign for days. Former vice president Joe Biden, who since his April 25 entry into the presidential contest has held a consistent lead in polls, is experiencing the most unsteady period of his campaign so far in the aftermath of his heated ex-change with Sen. Kamala D. Harris (D-Calif.) over his past views on school desegregation, with demands from some civil rights leaders for him to further clarify his 1970s-era opposition to mandatory busing. The moment has taken on particular salience because it showcased Biden, 76, who has premised his candidacy in part on his ability to win back working-class white voters, under attack from one of the country’s most prominent black political figures in Harris, who addressed the issues in deeply personal terms. Harris and a second black presidential candidate, Sen. CoryBooker (D-N.J.), have spent the past few weeks casting Biden as an anachronism who should apologize for his busing position and his willingness to work with segregationist senators. The rising tensions have the potential to reshape the race, with Biden at risk of losing support from crucial African American voters and Harris appearing to gain momentum. But the emerging dynamics are also sparking concern among some in the party who fear that renewing painful debates over school busing risks turning off centrist voters whom Democrats hope to win next year in their shared goal of defeatingFormer vice president Joe Biden, who has held a steady lead in the polls, is experiencing shakiness after an exchange on race with Sen. Kamala D. Harris during a primary debate.President Trump. “There is a narrow pathway if we continue on this path of being the quote-unquote Whole Foods party,” said J.D. Scholten, the Democrat who nearly defeated Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) in a rural district. “. . . We have to compete in places that I call Dollar General districts.” Others, however, say that the debate is precisely what is necessary as the party looks to nominate its next standard-bearer. “It’s not really about busing. It’s about what their commitment to racial justice looks like,” said Aimee Allison, the founder and president of She the People, a55SUNDAY, July, 7, 2019 SUNDAY, JULY  7,  2019POLITICS group intent on bolstering women of color in politics. “We should have a conversation that puts racial justice in the middle of a conversation in the Democratic primary.” The episode that kicked off days of Democratic angst was the most memorable exchange from four hours of debating over two nights, as Harris not only confronted Biden’s long-held opposition to school busing but also personalized it by saying that she herself benefited from a busing system in California. Biden said she was misinterpreting his position, but he struggled to respond in a debate that even supporters concede went worse than expected. The next day, in an appearance in Chicago, he spoke more forcefully when reading a speech via a teleprompter in which he defended his long record on voting rights and said the civil rights struggle was what drove him to run for office nearly five decades ago. But Biden’s speech also highlighted the complicated nature of his argument, as he sought to hold the same position he held in the 1970s and yet square it with today’s politics on race. He has been an opponent of federally mandated busing — calling it an “asinine concept,” a “liberal train wreck” and discussing a constitutional amendment to ban it. But recently, he has drawn the distinction that he never opposed having school districts start a busing system on their own. His campaign stressed this week that he also supports policies to address segregation, including rezoning school districts, combating discriminatory housing policies and eliminating obstacles to new public housing. “He also believes that in 2019, there should be first-rate, quality schools in every neighborhood in America — and by tripling Title 1 funding, his education plan includes the resources to make that happen,” campaign spokesman T.J. Ducklo said. But some prominent activists believe he needs to do more. “I don’t rule out that he can redeem himself,” said the Rev. Al Sharpton, who in April hosted many in the Democratic field before the National Action Network. “But he’s going to have to do some clarifying.” Sharpton said he had issuesSTEPHEN LAM/REUTERSSen. Kamala D. Harris (Calif.), above at San Francisco’s Pride Parade last Sunday, and Sen. Cory Booker (D-N.J.), below, have spent the past week casting Biden as an anachronism who should apologize for his busing position and his willingness to work with segregationist senators.with Biden’s position against busing as well as with his response to Harris that he was supportive of local districts implementing such programs — but not supportive of the federal government intervening in busing. “His reflexive answer was more problematic than the initial answer,” Sharpton said. “To say you agreed with the locals making the decision and not the federal government is the problem. . . . What you are now advocating is states’ rights, which is what we fought the last 50 years. Hell, that’s what the Civil War was about.” It has been a striking turn that a little over two years after the first black president left office, his party is now consumed by a major dispute over decades-old policies aimed at desegregation — and the opposition to those policies by that man’s vice president. Civil rights leaders who have worked with and admired Biden have been surprised, both by his debate performance and his struggles to move past it. “Someone like Biden who actually has gone through a son’s death and has gone through pain, the fact that he was pretty flatfooted was a surprise to people,” said Randi Weingarten, president of the American Federation of Teachers. “The fact that he didn’t hear her pain was a surprise to people, and it was a surprise to me.”“I do think he knows and he can deal with the issue of pain,” Weingarten said. “But I think, like so many others, why, why not just say: ‘I’m sorry.’ ” The debate exchange has also animated Biden’s supporters, who are angry that Harris has used what they view as an unfair attack to rise in the polls. “This was strategically planned,” said Harold Schaitberger, president of the International Association of Firefighters, which has endorsed Biden. “This wasn’t an organic reaction. Like, ‘I’m offended and I’m organically emotionally reacting to this.’ This was a contrived, rehearsed, premeditated ambush. And I’m sorry that’s the case. I know the senator well and I have — I shouldn’t say had — I have respect for her. But I don’t think this will be looked upon as her finest moment.” “Anybody who knows Joe Biden and his career knows his long and profound support of civil rights in every way you can measure it,” he added. Harris’s debate thrust put Democratic candidates in a position they have not experienced for decades — having to contemplate a position on busing. Harris on Sunday said that she still supports busing and sees a modern-day use for it. “The schools of America are as segregated, if not more segregated, today than when I was inKLMNO WEEKLYelementary school,” she told reporters in San Francisco this past Sunday. “And we need to put every effort, including busing, into play to desegregate the schools. . . . There’s no such thing as separate but equal, and so busing is one of the ways by which we create desegregation and we make it more equal.” Harris’s campaign on Monday said that she supported federal resources for busing and cited legislation from Sen. Chris Murphy (D-Conn.) and Rep. Marcia L. Fudge (D-Ohio). That legislation would authorize $120 million for a variety of purposes, including one to expand school busing services. Some in the party worry about a debate over busing policies — court-ordered school busing was highly unpopular among white voters in the 1970s, and black voters were divided on the practice. In today’s context, some worry that a return to advocating it might not play well among suburban voters who powered Democratic House wins in 2018. Others want to focus more broadly on racial justice — an area that Biden, the author of a tough-on-crime bill from 1994, could also struggle with. Already, however, the debate is playing out in unpredictable ways. Gloria Major, a 66-year-old black voter from Columbia, S.C., grew up being bused to a white school in Florida. “Racism is very real to me, but the realest thing is this country is going to hell in a handbasket,” she said. “Why are you debating something that happened 40 years ago? That came out of the clear blue sky?” Before the debate, she said, Harris was among a quartet of candidates who intrigued her. After the debate, Harris was off the list for creating “a distraction.” “Why would I hold him accountable for something that happened in 1975?” she said. “Let’s go pull out all the skeletons out of everybody’s closet if that’s the case.” “I feel like you’re being distracted from the issues that matter, and I think she’s trying to boost herself in the ra
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