Eating Hints: Before, During, After Cancer

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Eating Hints: Before, During, After CancerAbout this Book Eating Hints is written for you—someone who is about to get, or is now getting, cancer treatment. Your…
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Eating Hints: Before, During, After CancerAbout this Book Eating Hints is written for you—someone who is about to get, or is now getting, cancer treatment. Your family, friends, and others close to you may also want to read this book. You can use this book before, during, and after cancer treatment. It has hints about common types of eating problems, along with ways to manage them.This book covers: ! What you should know about cancer treatment, eating well, and eating problems ! How feelings can affect appetite ! Hints to manage eating problems ! How to eat well after cancer treatment ends ! Foods and drinks to help with certain eating problems ! Ways to learn more Talk with your doctor, nurse, or dietitian about any eating problems that might affect you during cancer treatment. He or she may suggest that you read certain sections or follow some of the tips.Rather than read this book from beginning to end, look at just those sections you need now. Later, you can always read more.www.cancer.goviTable of Contents What You Should Know bout Cancer Treatment, Eating Well, and Eating Problems .......................................................................................................................1 Feelings Can Affect Your Appetite ..............................................................................................7 List of Eating Problems ....................................................................................................................9 Appetite Loss ........................................................................................................................................... 10 Constipation ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Diarrhea ................................................................................................................................................... 15 Dry Mouth .............................................................................................................................................. 17 Lactose Intolerance ................................................................................................................................ 19 Nausea ...................................................................................................................................................... 21 Sore Mouth (Mucositis).......................................................................................................................... 23 Sore Throat and Trouble Swallowing (Esophagitis)............................................................................ 26 Taste or Smell Changes ........................................................................................................................... 29 Vomiting .................................................................................................................................................. 31 Weight Gain ............................................................................................................................................ 33 Weight Loss ............................................................................................................................................. 35After Cancer Treatment .............................................................................................................. 38 Eating Problems that May Be Caused by Certain Cancer Treatments ........................... 39www.cancer.goviiiTable of Contents (continued)Lists of Foods and Drinks ............................................................................................................ 41 Clear Liquids ........................................................................................................................................... 41 Full-Liquid Foods .................................................................................................................................... 42 Foods and Drinks that Are Easy on the Stomach ............................................................................... 43 Low-Fiber Foods ..................................................................................................................................... 45 High-Fiber Foods .................................................................................................................................... 46 Foods and Drinks that Are Easy to Chew and Swallow ..................................................................... 47 Quick and Easy Snacks ........................................................................................................................... 48 Ways to Add Protein ............................................................................................................................... 49 Way to Add Calories ............................................................................................................................... 52Recipes Banana Milkshake ................................................................................................................................... 12 Apple/Prune Sauce .................................................................................................................................. 14 Lactose-Free Double Chocolate Pudding ............................................................................................ 20 Fruit and Cream ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Protein-Fortified Milk ............................................................................................................................ 36 High-Protein Milkshake ......................................................................................................................... 37 Peanut Butter Snack Spread ................................................................................................................... 37iv1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237)What You Should Know bout Cancer Treatment, Eating Well, and Eating Problems People with Cancer Have Different Diet Needs People with cancer often need to follow diets that are different from what you think of as healthy. For most people, a healthy diet includes: ! Lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain breads and cereals ! Modest amounts of meat and milk products ! Small amounts of fat, sugar, alcohol, and salt When you have cancer, though, you need to eat to keep up your strength to deal with the side effects of treatment. When you are healthy, eating enough food is often not a problem. But when you are dealing with cancer and treatment, this can be a real challenge. When you have cancer, you may need extra protein and calories. At times, your diet may need to include extra milk, cheese, and eggs. If you have trouble chewing and swallowing, you may need to add sauces and gravies. Sometimes, you may need to eat low-fiber foods instead of those with high fiber. A dietitian can help you with any diet changes you may need to make.Side Effects from Cancer Treatment Can Lead to Eating Problems Cancer treatments are designed to kill cancer cells. But these treatments can also damage healthy cells. Damage to healthy cells can cause side effects that lead to eating problems. See the list on page 9 to see the types of eating problems that cancer treatment may cause. Common eating problems during cancer treatment include: ! Appetite loss! Nausea! Changes in sense of taste or smell! Sore mouth! Constipation! Sore throat and trouble swallowing! Diarrhea! Vomiting! Dry mouth! Weight gain! Lactose intolerance! Weight lossSome people have appetite loss or nausea because they are stressed about cancer and treatment. But once people know what to expect, they often feel better.www.cancer.gov1Getting Ready for Cancer Treatment ! Until treatment starts you will not know what, if any, side effects or eating problems you may have. If you do have problems, they may be mild. Many side effects can be controlled and many problems go away when cancer treatment ends. ! Eat a healthy diet and stay about the same weight before treatment starts. Eating a healthy diet and maintaining weight before treatment helps you stay strong, lower your risk for infection, cope with side effects better, and have a greater chance of receiving treatment without unplanned breaks. ! Go to the dentist. It is important to have a healthy mouth before you start cancer treatment. ! Ask your doctor, nurse, or dietitian about medicine that can help with eating problems. ! Discuss your fears and worries with your doctor, nurse, or social worker. He or she can discuss ways to manage and cope with these feelings. ! Learn about your cancer and its treatment. Many people feel better when they know what to expect.Ways You Can Get Ready to Eat Well ! Fill the refrigerator, cupboard, and freezer with healthy foods. Make sure to include items you can eat even when you feel sick. ! Stock up on foods that need little or no cooking, such as frozen dinners and ready-to-eat cooked foods. ! Cook foods ahead of time and freeze in meal-sized portions. ! Ask friends or family to help you shop and cook during treatment. Maybe a friend can set up a schedule of the tasks that need to be done and the people who will do them. ! Create a grocery list of items you usually buy so that it is easy for friends and family to shop for you. ! Talk with your doctor, nurse, or dietitian about what to expect. You can find lists of foods and drinks to help with many types of eating problems on pages 41 to 53.21-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237)Everyone Is Dierent Because everyone is dierent, there is no way to know if you will have eating problems and, if so, how bad they will be. You may have just a few problems or none at all. In part, this depends on the type of cancer you have, where it is in your body, what kind of treatment you have, how long treatment lasts, and the doses of treatment you receive. During treatment, there are many helpful medicines and other ways to manage eating problems. Your doctor, nurse, or dietitian can tell you more about the types of eating problems you might expect and ways to manage them. If you start to have eating problems, tell your doctor or nurse right away.If you start to have eating problems, tell your doctor or nurse right away.Talk with Your Doctor, Nurse, or Dietitian Talk with your doctor or nurse if you are not sure what to eat during cancer treatment. Ask him or her to refer you to a dietitian. A dietitian is the best person to talk with about your diet. He or she can help choose foods and drinks that are best for you during treatment and after. Make a list of questions for your meeting with the dietitian. Ask about your favorite foods and recipes and if you can eat them during cancer treatment. You might want to find out how other patients manage their eating problems. You can also bring this book and ask the dietitian to mark sections that are right for you. If you are already on a special diet for diabetes, kidney or heart disease, or other health problem, it is even more important to speak with a doctor and dietitian. Your doctor and dietitian can advise you about how to follow your special diet while coping with eating problems caused by cancer treatment. For more information on how to find a dietitian, visit the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at www.eatright.org/findan-expert.www.cancer.gov3Ways to Get the Most from Foods and Drinks During treatment, you may have good days and bad days when it comes to food. Here are some ways to manage: ! Eat plenty of protein and calories when you can. This helps you keep up your strength and helps rebuild tissues harmed by cancer treatment. ! Eat when you have the biggest appetite. For many people, this is in the morning. You might want to eat a bigger meal early in the day and drink liquid meal replacements later on. ! It’s okay if you feel like you can’t eat a lot of different foods. Eat the foods that sound good until you are able to eat more, even if it’s the same thing again and again. You might also drink liquid meal replacements for extra nutrition. ! Do not worry if you cannot eat at all some days. Spend this time finding other ways to feel better and start eating when you can. Tell your doctor if you cannot eat for more than 2 days. ! Drink plenty of liquids. It is even more important to get plenty to drink on days when you cannot eat. Drinking a lot helps your body get the liquid it needs. Most adults should drink 8 to 12 cups of liquid a day. You may find this easier to do if you keep a water bottle nearby. Also, try some of the clear liquids listed on page 41.Taking Special Care with Food to Avoid Infections Some cancer treatments can make you prone to infections. When this happens, you need to take special care in the way you handle and prepare food. Be careful to: ! Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. ! Put leftovers in the refrigerator as soon as you have finished eating. ! Scrub all raw fruits and vegetables with a brush and water before you eat them. ! Soak berries and other foods that are not easily scrubbed in water, then rinse. ! Scrub fruits and vegetable that have rough surfaces and peels, such as melons, oranges, and avocados, with a brush and water before you cut or peel them.41-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237)! Soak frozen fruits and vegetables in water and rinse if you are not going to cook them (for a smoothie, for instance). If cooking, you do not need to wash frozen fruits and vegetables. ! Wash your hands, knives, and counter tops before and after you prepare food. This step is most important when preparing raw meat, chicken, turkey, and fish. ! Wash your hands each time you touch raw meat, chicken, turkey,fish.! Use one cutting board for meat and another one for fruits and vegetables. ! Thaw meat, chicken, turkey, and fish in the refrigerator or defrost them in the microwave. Cook meat, chicken, turkey, and eggs thoroughly. Eggs should be hard, not runny. Meats should not have any pink inside. To be sure meat, chicken, turkey, and fish is safe, use a meat thermometer and cook to the safe temperature. Refer to a safe minimum cooking temperature chart, such as the one available at: https://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html ! Make sure your juices and milk products are pasteurized. ! Eat nuts that are shelled and roasted.Do not: ! Eat raw fish or shellfish, such as sushi and uncooked oysters. ! Eat raw nuts. ! Use foods, condiments, or drinks that are past their freshness date. ! Buy foods from bulk bins. ! Eat at buets, salad bars, or self-service restaurants. ! Eat foods that show signs of mold, including moldy cheeses such as bleu cheese and Roquefort. ! Eat any perishable foods that have been sitting at room temperature longer than 2 hours. ! Eat leftovers that have been in the refrigerator longer than 3 days. ! Leave meat, chicken, turkey, or fish sitting out to thaw. For more information about infection and cancer treatment, see Chemotherapy and You: Support for People with Cancer, a booklet from the National Cancer Institute, available at www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/chemo-and-you.www.cancer.gov5Using Food, Vitamins, and Other Supplements to Fight Cancer Many people want to know how they can fight cancer by eating certain foods or taking vitamins or supplements. But, there are no studies that prove that any special diet, food, vitamin, mineral, dietary supplement, herb, or combination of these can slow cancer, cure it, or keep it from coming back. In fact, some of these products can cause other problems by changing how your cancer treatment works. Tell your doctor, nurse, or dietitian about any vitamin, mineral, dietary supplements, or herbs you are already taking or plan to take. Also, talk with them before going on a special diet. For more information about complementary and alternative therapies, see Thinking About Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Guide for People with Cancer, a booklet from the National Cancer Institute, at www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/thinkingabout-cam.A Special Note for Caregivers Do not be surprised or upset if your loved one’s food preferences change from day to day. There may be days when he or she does not want a favorite food or says it now tastes bad. Keep food within easy reach. This way, your loved one can have a snack whenever he or she is ready to eat. Put a snack-pack of applesauce or diced fruit along with a spoon on the bedside table. Keep roasted nuts on the counter. Or try keeping cut-up fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator. Eat fruits and vegetables with dips for extra calories and protein. Carrots go well with hummus and apples can be dipped in peanut butter. Oer gentle support rather than pushing your loved one to eat. Suggest that he or she drinks plenty of clear and full liquids when he or she has no appetite. For ideas on clear liquids, see page 41, and for full liquids, see page 42. Talk with your loved one about ways to manage eating problems. Ask the doctor for a referral to a dietitian and meet with him or her together. Talking it through and seeking other advice can help you both feel more in control. For more information about coping with caregiving, see When Someone You Love Is Being Treated for Cancer, a booklet from National Cancer Institute, at www.cancer.gov/ publications/patient-education/when-someone-you-love-is-being-treated. 61-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237)Feelings Can Affect Your Appetite During cancer treatment, you may feel: ! Depressed! Angry! Anxious! Helpless! Afraid! AloneIt is normal to have these feelings. Although these are not eating problems, strong feelings like these can affect your interest in food, shopping, and cooking. Fatigue can also make it harder to cope.Coping with Your Feelings during Cancer Treatment There are many things you can do to cope with your feelings during treatment so they do not ruin your appetite. Here are some ideas that have worked for other people. ! Eat your favorite foods on days you feel well. This way, you can enjoy the foods, but they won’t remind you of feeling poorly. ! Relax, meditate, or pray. Activities like these help many people feel calm and less stressed. ! Talk with someone you trust about your feelings. You may want to talk with a close friend, family member, religious or spiritual leader, nurse, social worker, counselor, or psychologist. You may also find it helpful to talk with someone who has gone through cancer treatment ! Join a cancer support group. This can be a way to meet others dealing with problems like yours. In support group meetings, you can talk about your feelings and listen to other people talk about theirs. You can also learn how others cope with cancer, treatment side effects, and eating problems. Ask your doctor, nurse, or social worker about support group meetings near you. You may also want to know about support groups that meet over the internet. These can be very helpful if you cannot travel or there is no group that meets close by. ! Learn about eating problems and other side effects before treatment starts. Many people feel more in control when they know what to expect and how to manage problems that may occur.www.cancer.gov7! Get enough rest. Make sure you get at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night. During the day, spend time doing quiet activities such as reading or watching a movie. ! Do not push yourself to do too much or more than you can manage. Look for easier ways to do your daily tasks. Many people feel better when they ask for or accept help from others. ! Be active each day. Studies show that many people feel better when they take short walks or do light exerc
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