50 Treasures from Winchester College

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PrefaceWinchester College has probably the longest unbroken history of any school in England. It was established by William of Wykeham in 1382 and tuition began in…
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PrefaceWinchester College has probably the longest unbroken history of any school in England. It was established by William of Wykeham in 1382 and tuition began in 1394. Most of the school’s medieval buildings are still used for their original purpose, and the name of every Scholar educated here is recorded. For more than six centuries the pattern of learning, worship and daily life established at the College’s foundation has continued, altered in its details but true to its essential character. This book celebrates some of the works of art, books and documents that belong to this ancient institution. They are part of its identity. The depth and diversity of the College’s collections are unique. Our treasures range from ancient Greek pottery to contemporary artists’ books, from medieval silver to models of eighteenth-century warships. Some of the objects featured here are important and well known to scholars; others have a more local significance in the context of Winchester’s history. All are part of the life of the school and contribute to the education of our pupils. The collections take a central place in Div, Winchester’s unique cultural and historical curriculum. Pupils have the opportunity tocurate their own exhibitions, and often become involved in the care and study of the collections. The essays in this volume have all been written by members of the school community: pupils past and present, teachers, staff and Fellows (our governors). The authors have drawn on their own experience and expertise in a variety of fields, as academics, collectors, curators and gardeners, among many others. The result is a series of personal responses to the College’s treasures. This publication has been funded by the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College, and for their collegial spirit I am most grateful. It is our intention that it will be the start of a series on the history of the College and its collections. In recent years the school has made its heritage increasingly accessible. Since 2016 our collections of art and archaeology have been displayed in a purpose-built museum, once the Warden’s Stables, now known to us as the Treasury, and a treasure in its own right. We think the treasures featured in these pages are worth a visit. Do come and make up your own mind. Charles Sinclair (Warden)PrefaceWinchester College has probably the longest unbroken history of any school in England. It was established by William of Wykeham in 1382 and tuition began in 1394. Most of the school’s medieval buildings are still used for their original purpose, and the name of every Scholar educated here is recorded. For more than six centuries the pattern of learning, worship and daily life established at the College’s foundation has continued, altered in its details but true to its essential character. This book celebrates some of the works of art, books and documents that belong to this ancient institution. They are part of its identity. The depth and diversity of the College’s collections are unique. Our treasures range from ancient Greek pottery to contemporary artists’ books, from medieval silver to models of eighteenth-century warships. Some of the objects featured here are important and well known to scholars; others have a more local significance in the context of Winchester’s history. All are part of the life of the school and contribute to the education of our pupils. The collections take a central place in Div, Winchester’s unique cultural and historical curriculum. Pupils have the opportunity tocurate their own exhibitions, and often become involved in the care and study of the collections. The essays in this volume have all been written by members of the school community: pupils past and present, teachers, staff and Fellows (our governors). The authors have drawn on their own experience and expertise in a variety of fields, as academics, collectors, curators and gardeners, among many others. The result is a series of personal responses to the College’s treasures. This publication has been funded by the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College, and for their collegial spirit I am most grateful. It is our intention that it will be the start of a series on the history of the College and its collections. In recent years the school has made its heritage increasingly accessible. Since 2016 our collections of art and archaeology have been displayed in a purpose-built museum, once the Warden’s Stables, now known to us as the Treasury, and a treasure in its own right. We think the treasures featured in these pages are worth a visit. Do come and make up your own mind. Charles Sinclair (Warden)ContentsThis edition © Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd, 2019 Text and photography © Winchester College, 2019 First published in 2019 by Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd 10 Lion Yard Tremadoc Road London SW4 7NQ, UK www.scalapublishers.com In association with Winchester College College Street Winchester SO23 9NA www.winchestercollege.org ISBN 978-1-78551-220-9Edited by Robert Davies Designed by Maggi Smith, Sixism Printed and bound in Italy 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of Winchester College and Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd. Every effort has been made to acknowledge correct copyright of images where applicable. Any errors or omissions are unintentional and should be notified to the Publisher, who will arrange for corrections to appear in any reprints.Front cover: Rose Tapestries, 1480sIntroduction: The College and its Collections 9Shakespeare First Folio 84A note on abbreviations De Collegio Wintoniensi 86The Capel Cup 88Diary of William Emes 90Hooke’s Micrographia 92Eliot’s Indian Bible 96Newton’s Principia 9825Greek Cup by the Winchester Painter 26 Parthenon Frieze Casts 28Ancient Greek Coins 30 The Drayton Charter 32Song Dynasty Bowl 34Paschasius on Lamentations 36Seals of Henry of Blois 38A Life of Thomas Becket 40The Death of St Germain 42The Foundation Charter 44Higden’s Polychronicon 48Virgin and Child, Outer Gate 50Jesse Window, College Chapel 52The Statutes of Winchester College 54Agincourt Account Roll 56Ming Dynasty Meiping 58Cast of Donatello’s David 60The Winchester Dialogues 62Election Cup 64The Ulm Ptolemy 66Rose Tapestries 70Tudor Schoolbooks 72The Andwell Map 74Henslowe Ewer and Basin 76The Winchester Partbooks 78King James Bible 82François Lemoyne, The Annunciation 100 Qing Dynasty Bat Bowl 102Gentlemen Commoners 104Le Formidable 106Joseph Banks’ Florilegium 108Jane Austen Manuscripts 110J.M.W. Turner, Neuwied and Weissenthurm 112 Crimea Scrapbook 114Anthony Trollope, The Warden 116George Richmond, John Desborough Walford 118 Olympic Prizes 120Pitch Flow Demonstration 122C.R.W. Nevinson, Twilight 124Gleadowe’s Stained Glass, Chantry 126Adonis Blues 128Jim Dine, The Apocalypse 130Andrew Festing, James Sabben-Clare 132Contributors 134Acknowledgements 136Illustration credits 136ContentsThis edition © Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd, 2019 Text and photography © Winchester College, 2019 First published in 2019 by Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd 10 Lion Yard Tremadoc Road London SW4 7NQ, UK www.scalapublishers.com In association with Winchester College College Street Winchester SO23 9NA www.winchestercollege.org ISBN 978-1-78551-220-9Edited by Robert Davies Designed by Maggi Smith, Sixism Printed and bound in Italy 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of Winchester College and Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd. Every effort has been made to acknowledge correct copyright of images where applicable. Any errors or omissions are unintentional and should be notified to the Publisher, who will arrange for corrections to appear in any reprints.Front cover: Rose Tapestries, 1480sIntroduction: The College and its Collections 9Shakespeare First Folio 84A note on abbreviations De Collegio Wintoniensi 86The Capel Cup 88Diary of William Emes 90Hooke’s Micrographia 92Eliot’s Indian Bible 96Newton’s Principia 9825Greek Cup by the Winchester Painter 26 Parthenon Frieze Casts 28Ancient Greek Coins 30 The Drayton Charter 32Song Dynasty Bowl 34Paschasius on Lamentations 36Seals of Henry of Blois 38A Life of Thomas Becket 40The Death of St Germain 42The Foundation Charter 44Higden’s Polychronicon 48Virgin and Child, Outer Gate 50Jesse Window, College Chapel 52The Statutes of Winchester College 54Agincourt Account Roll 56Ming Dynasty Meiping 58Cast of Donatello’s David 60The Winchester Dialogues 62Election Cup 64The Ulm Ptolemy 66Rose Tapestries 70Tudor Schoolbooks 72The Andwell Map 74Henslowe Ewer and Basin 76The Winchester Partbooks 78King James Bible 82François Lemoyne, The Annunciation 100 Qing Dynasty Bat Bowl 102Gentlemen Commoners 104Le Formidable 106Joseph Banks’ Florilegium 108Jane Austen Manuscripts 110J.M.W. Turner, Neuwied and Weissenthurm 112 Crimea Scrapbook 114Anthony Trollope, The Warden 116George Richmond, John Desborough Walford 118 Olympic Prizes 120Pitch Flow Demonstration 122C.R.W. Nevinson, Twilight 124Gleadowe’s Stained Glass, Chantry 126Adonis Blues 128Jim Dine, The Apocalypse 130Andrew Festing, James Sabben-Clare 132Contributors 134Acknowledgements 136Illustration credits 136early collections survive, they give only a hint of former riches.Fromond’s Chantry, built 1425 –45.Reformation to Restoration, 1500–1700Nearly all of Wykeham’s surviving personal possessions were bequeathed to New College, which preserves his mitre and crozier, and two dozen of his books.14 Winchester was less favoured; two objects once associated with Wykeham, the ‘Founder’s spoon’ and ‘Founder’s jewel’, have not survived modern scrutiny, and it is clear that they both date from after his death. The only objects at Winchester once owned by the Founder are three manuscripts, from a total of nine which he gave to the College. These are poignant objects because of their tangible link with Wykeham, but they are also significant volumes in their own right. William of Canterbury’s Life of Thomas Becket is the only source for some important incidents in the archbishop’s life, while Higden’s Polychronicon contains a rare medieval map of the world. The gift of these books may indicate a change of heart by Wykeham, who did not originally intend for Winchester to have a library.15 Unlike at New College, there is no place for a library in the plan of the College and no mention of library books in the statutes. While there must have been, from the beginning, rudimentary grammar books in the schoolroom, and service books for use in Chapel, it was perhaps assumed that the Fellows, having quit their studies in Oxford, would have little need of a library. From an early stage, however, they began to accumulate books that they held in common, and by 1410 a library room had been established in Exchequer Tower above College Hall. Following a common collegiate and monastic custom, some of these books were chained to desks, while others could be borrowed by the 14 Fellows. The chest in which the circulating collection was kept survives in the original library room. The College’s book collection grew rapidly during the first few decades of the fifteenth century. A detailed inventory compiled in 1429 lists about 130 manuscripts in the Fellows’ Library and dozens more in Chapel.16 Some of these had been purchased by the College, but most were gifts from men in Wykeham’s circle and from early alumni. Only seven or eight of the books listed in the medieval inventories remain at the College today, but Winchester is nonetheless one of only about two dozen English institutions to have survived with any part of its medieval library in situ. It also has one of the country’s earliest purpose-built library buildings, the upper chamber of a free-standing chantry chapel in the cloister, built between 1425 and 1445. This was intended as a replacement for the earlier library in Audit Room, which was small and poorly lit. As well as books, the medieval College attracted numerous gifts of silver, some from illustrious donors. In 1449 Henry VI gave a gold tabernacle, and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, presented a large pair of silver-gilt basins. An inventory drawn up in 1521 lists dozens of silver cups, ewers, salts and spoons.17 With the possible exception of the so-called ‘Founder’s spoon’, none of these survive. Other medieval possessions have also disappeared without trace: the vestments worn by priests; the fabrics that must once have adorned Chapel; the various wall paintings referred to in early documents; wooden statues and devotional objects. While important objects from the College’sThe middle decades of the sixteenth century saw the destruction of many of the College’s possessions, but also the acquisition of some of its greatest treasures. Winchester’s collections were transformed by the Reformation, which brought about a movement of wealth and goods from which the College both suffered and benefited, and by the Renaissance, which shaped the education offered by the school and the tastes of those commissioning works of art. The Henrician Reformation of the 1530s had little effect on Winchester.18 Services were still said and sung in Latin, the souls of the dead in Purgatory were prayed for and the richly decorated interior of the chapel was left unchanged. Much more considerable was the impact of Edward’s reforms in the years around 1550. It was at this point that the service books in Chapel became obsolete and must have been discarded, and the images of saints on the chapel rood screen were pulled down. Wall paintings were destroyed or covered up. Only the stained glass, misericords and stone sculptures survived. It was at this time that Winchester suffered the loss of its medieval chapel plate, although this was really an unfortunate accident.19 The College was exempt fromthe levy on church silver introduced by the Privy Council in 1553, but when commissioners were sent to raid the Cathedral they also took the opportunity to seize plate from the College. The complaints of Warden White arrived too late to save the silver, although it is possible that he received monetary compensation for it. White went some way to making good the loss when he presented a magnificent standing cup in 1555, although this was for secular rather than ecclesiastical use.20 Not all the significant losses of this period were a direct result of religious turmoil. Changing tastes, along with economic and technological developments, also had an important part to play. Most of the College’s medieval secular silver seems to have disappeared in the 1530s, and it is likely that many pieces were converted to cash to help fund some of the extensive land purchases made at this time. In the 1550s and 1560s several old pieces of silver were beaten out and refashioned in Renaissance style: recycling the original metal but destroying all evidence of its medieval form. The Henslowe Ewer and Basin, perhaps the finest pieces of silver in the College’s possession, are an example of this practice.21 The loss of most of the College’s medieval manuscripts seems to have taken place at about the same time as the removal or refashioning of its medieval silver, in the middle decades of the sixteenthAn inventory of the Fellows’ Library in 1429. Only one of the manuscripts listed on these pages remains at the College today.  15early collections survive, they give only a hint of former riches.Fromond’s Chantry, built 1425 –45.Reformation to Restoration, 1500–1700Nearly all of Wykeham’s surviving personal possessions were bequeathed to New College, which preserves his mitre and crozier, and two dozen of his books.14 Winchester was less favoured; two objects once associated with Wykeham, the ‘Founder’s spoon’ and ‘Founder’s jewel’, have not survived modern scrutiny, and it is clear that they both date from after his death. The only objects at Winchester once owned by the Founder are three manuscripts, from a total of nine which he gave to the College. These are poignant objects because of their tangible link with Wykeham, but they are also significant volumes in their own right. William of Canterbury’s Life of Thomas Becket is the only source for some important incidents in the archbishop’s life, while Higden’s Polychronicon contains a rare medieval map of the world. The gift of these books may indicate a change of heart by Wykeham, who did not originally intend for Winchester to have a library.15 Unlike at New College, there is no place for a library in the plan of the College and no mention of library books in the statutes. While there must have been, from the beginning, rudimentary grammar books in the schoolroom, and service books for use in Chapel, it was perhaps assumed that the Fellows, having quit their studies in Oxford, would have little need of a library. From an early stage, however, they began to accumulate books that they held in common, and by 1410 a library room had been established in Exchequer Tower above College Hall. Following a common collegiate and monastic custom, some of these books were chained to desks, while others could be borrowed by the 14 Fellows. The chest in which the circulating collection was kept survives in the original library room. The College’s book collection grew rapidly during the first few decades of the fifteenth century. A detailed inventory compiled in 1429 lists about 130 manuscripts in the Fellows’ Library and dozens more in Chapel.16 Some of these had been purchased by the College, but most were gifts from men in Wykeham’s circle and from early alumni. Only seven or eight of the books listed in the medieval inventories remain at the College today, but Winchester is nonetheless one of only about two dozen English institutions to have survived with any part of its medieval library in situ. It also has one of the country’s earliest purpose-built library buildings, the upper chamber of a free-standing chantry chapel in the cloister, built between 1425 and 1445. This was intended as a replacement for the earlier library in Audit Room, which was small and poorly lit. As well as books, the medieval College attracted numerous gifts of silver, some from illustrious donors. In 1449 Henry VI gave a gold tabernacle, and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, presented a large pair of silver-gilt basins. An inventory drawn up in 1521 lists dozens of silver cups, ewers, salts and spoons.17 With the possible exception of the so-called ‘Founder’s spoon’, none of these survive. Other medieval possessions have also disappeared without trace: the vestments worn by priests; the fabrics that must once have adorned Chapel; the various wall paintings referred to in early documents; wooden statues and devotional objects. While important objects from the College’sThe middle decades of the sixteenth century saw the destruction of many of the College’s possessions, but also the acquisition of some of its greatest treasures. Winchester’s collections were transformed by the Reformation, which brought about a movement of wealth and goods from which the College both suffered and benefited, and by the Renaissance, which shaped the education offered by the school and the tastes of those commissioning works of art. The Henrician Reformation of the 1530s had little effect on Winchester.18 Services were still said and sung in Latin, the souls of the dead in Purgatory were prayed for and the richly decorated interior of the chapel was left unchanged. Much more considerable was the impact of Edward’s reforms in the years around 1550. It was at this point that the servi
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